COMMON WORDS OF THE CHINOOK JARGON WITH THEIR FULL AND SHADED MEANINGS

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 (English word given in light face capitals and Chinook word given in black face capitals. In the examples following the Chinook words are in black face and English translations in light face. English words in parenthesis are the unspoken words needed to give English understanding of the idea conveyed by the spoken words, and show how Chinook condenses ideas into a few spoken words leaving much to be inferred or supplied by the listener.)

AYE!      A a a h

A as in fate and dwelled on as a level, sustained, accented sound ending with a short, sudden breath sound of h.

 This is always an exclamation used to confirm or agree with something a speaker has already said or is used by the listener to denote agreement after a statement has been made by someone else.

 Examples:  "A a a h"    "Yes, that is so    it is the truth    certainly    surely," etc. When the speaker uses it to confirm his own statement it is sounded the same and means "I have spoken truly." "What I said was the truth." "I say it again, it is that way, the truth altogether."

A a a nah!

A as in fate; hold the A sound and end with explosive short spoken  nah  with a as in father.

 This word is almost the same as "A a a h!" and means the same in actual use.

A a a e!

A as in fate; e as in eat; a sustained sound of a with e short and explosive at end.

 This word is interchangeable with above two in meaning and is also further used to express wonder, fear, surprise and sympathy, depending entirely on tonal inflection in its use. An upward inflection makes it mean surprise or wonder: if spoken short, quick and explosive, it means fear, and to speak it softly in a crooning way with nearly level or slight downward inflection, turns it into a wordless expression of sympathy and commiseration.

 It is one of the Indian sounds that the white man not familiar with the Indian tongue and methods classifies as a "grunt" just as he does the Indian "Ug!" or "Ugh!" (See "Ugh").

TIME PAST.

AHNCUTTIE.

A as in father; nasal n; u as in cut; accent  ahn  and pronounce Ahn n cut ty, holding the accented syllable  ahn  slightly on the nasal n as in the French "oong."

 The word taken alone means time that has past or gone. If spoken as printed above, it means very lately, five minutes ago, an hour ago, a few hours ago or any like short period of time gone by. To express longer time, hold the first syllable  ahn  by prolonging the nasal n sound thus, Ahn n n n. The longer this "n" sound is prolonged the longer the indicated time past; usually a rather high, sustained pitch, or inflection, is given to this prolonged "n" sound and the balance of the word is then spoken quickly and with a decided drop in tone-pitch so that it sounds thus: Ahn n n n cuttie, which means "A very long, long time ago," just as we would use the idea in beginning a fairy story for children. Further time past is indicated by using "Delate" (much) before the Ahncuttie; still further time past is indicated by holding and drawing out the syllable " a " in "Delate" to equal the nasal "n" as prolonged in Ahncuttie, but the inflection, or accent, of "Delate" is never dropped as it is in Ahncuttie. Spoken thus to indicate an exceedingly long time (hundreds of years) ago the words become this: "De-la a a a a te aim n n n cuttie" with "e" of "Delate" sounded long as in beef and "a" as in fate. If still longer time idea is needed then "Hiyu" (many) (i as in high, u as in use), is used as a prefix for "Delate" and then still more time is added by holding or drawing out the  hi  syllable of Hiyu so that thus expressed, time dates back to the very beginning of things "before anyone knows about" and you express this idea thus: "Hi i i i i i yu de la a a a a te ahn n n n n n cuttie," meaning "many-much-long ago," as an exclamation with the high tone pitch sustained from the beginning of  hi  to the sudden drop at  cuttie . Thus, "ahncuttie" by length or shortness of the spoken word, and its combinations with other words, becomes a comparative measure of any length of time past and it is always used shortened or drawn out as above to fit the situation, so its meaning is very soon understood exactly in actual use. To shorten the time to less than that indicated by the word spoken shortly, the prefix "Tenas" (small or little) curtails the time in the same way that holding the syllable above indicates length    and by using "Hiyu" as a prefix for "Tenas" the time is still further shortened until "Hiyu tenas ahncuttie," used as an exclamation and spoken quickly would mean, if speaking of something that had just happened, that the shortest possible time had passed since such happening. The word "Ahncuttie" is not much used, however, in this short-time sense but is nearly always used to indicate a longer time-ago, short time being indicated more often by "Wake lalie" (not long ago), "Ahncuttie" being usually reserved for long periods of time passed "a long time ago" being the usual use of "Ahncuttie" in actual conversation.

FUTURE      BY AND BYE      TIME TO COME.

ALKI.

A as in at; i as in kick; accent  al  and pronounce Al kie with the last syllable short, just exactly as though you started to say "kick" and only got as far as "ki ."

 The word means the future, any time in the future from "in a moment" to a "thousand, thousand years from now." The length of time in-the-future is indicated by using the word in a slow, drawling way to mean "in a little while," and further lengthening the indicated time by prefixing first. "Tenas" (little) then by discarding "Tenas" and using "Delate" (much) as a prefix, then by drawing out the word "Delate" by holding the syllable  a  (exactly as used with ahncuttie, to indicate length of time past) and then by adding "Hiyu" (many) as a prefix to "Delate," and then by drawing out the syllable  hi  of "hiyu," and last by drawing out all three words (see ahncuttie) which gives the meaning of the farthest possible future time. The word means exactly the opposite of ahncuttie and its future time value is indicated in exactly the same way by the same prefix words used in the same way with both time words    Alki, time to come; Ahncuttie, time already gone by.

 Examples:  "Alki nika chaco," "By and bye I come." "Tenas alki mika klatawa," "In a little while he (will) go." "Delate alki mika nanage," "In a long time you will see (it)." "Hiyu delate alki," "(It will be) a long long (very long) time (yet)." "Hi i i yu dela a a te a a a a lki," "A very great long-time-in-the-future." (Perhaps a hundred years from now).

 "Wake alki." "Not long (yet)."

 "Alki mika iskum." "By and bye I (will) get (it)."

NOW      THIS TIME      THE PRESENT.

ALTA.

A as in at in first syllable; a as in father in second syllable: accent  al  and pronounce Al tah with slight breath sound of h at end.

 This word means "the present time." "right now." "this instant." It has no other meaning and is rigid, that is, it is never "stretched" to mean other than present time nor can it be used to modify; it just means "right now" and nothing else.

 Examples:  "Chaco yowah alta," "Come here right now." "Alta mika mitlite copo house," "Now you stay in the house." "Wake alta nika klatawa," "Not now will I go." (Idea: "I cannot go just now.")

SISTER.

ATS.

A as in hat; accent a and pronounce At s s with hissing sound of s to end the word.

 The word means "sister" and nothing else and is not very commonly used. "Elip tenas klootchman" is more commonly used to mean "my younger sister" and "Kimtah tenas klootchman" to mean "My older sister." "Ats" is correct for "sister" however.

AN AMERICAN.

BOSTON.

 Same as English.

 "Boston man" was used in the early days to distinguish an American from Spanish, French or English. Since the United States has owned the Northwest the word has usually been used to mean a white man of any nationality as distinguished from an Indian and this is the common use today.

 Examples:  "Chim, yahka Bosín man." "Jim, he (the) white man." (Note: In speaking the word "Boston" the Indian usually leaves out the sound of "t" and "o" following it and makes the word "Bosín").

BABY.

BEBE.

 Pronounce as though written bee bee.

 Used only to mean "baby" or "infant" or "infant-like." Never used to mean a small child that is large enough to talk    always the small, helpless baby and nothing else, though it is used to mean "baby-horse," "baby-dog," etc., meaning a very small or "baby" animal in this case. It covers the idea of "baby," a small baby, as understood in English and is used just as we use the word "baby."

 Examples:  "Okeoke nika bebe," "That is my (little) baby." "Yahka tenas kowmux bebe," "He (is a) little puppy (dog-baby)." "Nika klap mox ena-bebe," "I found two beaver-babies."

GUN.

CALIPEEN.

C has sound of k; a as in hat; i as in hit; ee as in seen; accent  cal  and pronounce Kal-lip-peen.

 Chinook word meaning "gun" of any kind, used just as "gun" is used in English.

 Examples:  "Okeoke nika calipeen," "That is my gun." "Mox calipeen," "Double barreled gun" (two-gun gun). "Hiyu mamook-poo calipeen," "A repeating gun" (many-shoot gun). "Tenas calipeen," "Pistol" (little gun). "Stick calipeen," "Bow" (wood gun). This last is usually used thus, "Siawash stick-calipeen" (Indian wood-gun).

BULLET      ARROW      SHOT.

CALITAN.

C has sound of k; a as in hat; i as in hit; a as in ran; accent  cal  and pronounce Cal-li tan.

 Chinook word for "bullet" or "arrow." A missile thrown or fired from a gun, small shot; never used in any other sense.

 Examples:  "Okeoke hyas calitan," "That is a big bullet." "Nika tika tenas calitan copo nika calipeen," "I want some shot for my gun." "Hyas tenas-calitan," "Large size of shot." "Spose mika mamook klosh calitan copo siwash stick-calipeen    nah?" "Can you make good arrows for a bow    yes?" "Yahka mowitch chaco memaloose copo calitan copo siawash stick calipeen," "(That deer) he (was) came killed with an arrow from an Indian bow."

CAMAS.

(Camassia esculenta.)

CAMAS.

C has sound of k; a as in hat (both); accent  cam  and pronounce Kam mas.

 The name of a bulb formerly used as food by the Indians all over the West. The root bulb of the Camassia esculenta (see botany for particulars). Used as any other name word in Chinook or English. Almost obsolete now in Chinook from lack of use.

CANOE      BOAT OF ANY KIND.

CANIM.

C has sound of k; a as in fate; i as in swim; accent  nim  and pronounce Kay nim.

 "Canim" is usually used to indicate a Siawash canoe though it is frequently used to mean any boat, the particular kind of boat being made plain by prefix words in the sentence.

 Examples:  "Hyas piah canim," "A big fire-boat." (Idea: "A big boat that goes-by-fire"    "a steamer.") "Stick canim," "A sailing ship." (This may also be mentioned as a "sail canim" though "sail canim" usually means a small sail-boat.) "Hyas chicamun canim," "A big iron boat," "a steamer." ("Piah canim" is more often used to mean "steamer" than "Chicamun canim" is    the latter being more apt to be used to mean "a boat built-of-iron" whether steamer or sailing vessel.) "Canim stick," "A mast." ("Canim sail-stick" is also used to mean "a mast"). (Note: "Boat," the English word, is quite often used nowadays to mean any boat other than a canoe and "canim" used to mean "canoe" alone.)

COAT      CLOAK.

CAPO.

C has k sound; a as in fate; o as in oat; accent  po  and pronounce Kay poh.

 "Capo" is from the French "Capot" and is one of the many French words incorporated into Chinook. It is not very much used, however; (indeed very few of the French words can be called "active" nowadays in the Chinook and most of them will not be used at all before many years).

 Examples:  "Nika capo," "My coat" "Okeoke capo nika klootchman," "That cloak (belongs to) my woman (wife)."

COME      TO COME.

CHACO.

Ch should be given a slight t sound as  tch  (but very slightly so); a as in father; c has the sound of k; o as in oat; accent  cha  and pronounce (Tí)chah ko.

This word is the command "Come!" when used alone, but it is also very flexible and is used to indicate past, present or future "come"    (I did come, I come, I will come) and is used to indicate the act of "coming" on the part of anyone or anything else in the past, present or future. It is always used as a prefix to indicate the idea of "come, came, will come, did come, may come, intends to come," or any other idea covering "come" past, present or future. It is one of the very common words of Chinook and covers a multitude of situations.

 Examples:  "Nika chaco," "I come." "Mesika chaco wake lalie," "They (will) come not long (before long or soon)." "Okeoke canim chaco kokshut," "That canoe comes (or has come, really is) all broken up." "Nika bebe chaco memaloose," "My baby comes (is) dead." "Klaxtah chaco?" "Who (was it) came?" "Kahtah mika chaco?" "How (did) you come?" "Konce chaco?" "How many came?" (The same words "Konce chaco" also mean "How much came" or "How much (or how many) will come?" depending on subject and surroundings when used.)

NEW.

CHEE.

Ch as in chicken; ee as in beef; accent  ee  and pronounce Chee.

 This word means "new" primarily and is flexible enough to mean "lately," "recent," and (compared with something older) to mean "newer," "more recent." It is used alone a great deal but more often as a qualifying word to fix the age or time of something else, thus: "Okeoke ict chee canim," "That is a (one) new canoe." "Mika chee-chaco?" "(Are) you a newcomer?" or "Did you just come (here)?" "Chee nika opitsah," (Literally) "New my knife is." (I have a new knife). "Chee-mamook okeoke," "Make it new" ("do it over" or "make a new one"). "Chee-chaco bebe okeoke," "A new baby (is) that." (This last can be either the question "Is that a new baby?" or a statement of fact, "That is a new baby," depending entirely on how and under what circumstances you use the words in connection with the idea to be expressed.) "Chee" used one way or another covers the whole idea of "new."

THE BROWN BEAR.

CHETWOOT.

Ch as in chicken; e as in get; oo as in coo; accent  chet  and pronounce Chet-woo t with terminal t short and positive.

 Name of the brown bear, no other meaning. Used same as "brown bear" in English.

 (See "Itswoot"    black bear.)

MONEY      METAL OF ANY KIND.

CHICKAMUN.

Chick  as in chicken; a as in father; u as in up; accent  chick  and pronounce Chick-a mun.

 This word primarily means "money" especially metal coins. It is also the "metal" word, any kind of metal in any form is always "chickamun" and the word is qualified by either a prefix or a following word fixing the kind of metal or the shape or color of the metal.

 Examples:  "Pil-chickamun," "Gold" (or literally "Red metal"). "Tíkope-chickamun," "Silver" (or literally "white metal"). "Klale Chickamun," "Iron" (or literally "black metal"). "Chickamun-lope," "Wire" or "wire rope." "Chickamun opitsah," a "metal knife" (used to mean a steel knife). "Klosh chickamun," "Is the metal good?" or "The metal is good" (used in talking of tools, knives, etc., and means literally "This is good steel" or "Is this good steel?"). "Chickamun" always means the metal and it can be qualified in very numerous ways to cover any metal in any form by use of prefix or following words associating the metal idea with the subject in hand.

A WHEEL.

CHICK-CHICK.

Chick  as in chicken; accent first syllable and pronounce as written.

 The primary meaning is "wheel" but it is flexible enough to mean any number of wheels, any kind of a wheel, any wheeled vehicle, any wheeled machine, etc. The exact meaning is governed by use of qualifying words or by the use of the word "chick-chick" to qualify some combination of other words    but it always fixes the "wheel" or "has wheels" or "is wheels" or "runs on wheels," idea.

 Examples:  "Chick-chick," "A wheel." "Chick-chick klatawa," "Go on (or by) a wagon." "Chickamun chick-chick oiahut," "A railroad track" (literally, "A metal wheeled-vehicle-road" or "A metal road for wagons"). "Piah chick-chick," "A locomotive" (literally, a fire wagon, or really a goes-by-fire wagon). "Chick-chick wawa-copo-sun icta," "A clock," or (literal idea expressed) "A thing-of-wheels (that) talks-time-the-same-as-the-Sun." (This same idea of clock could also be expressed as "Sun-wawa-icta," (Sun talk(ing) thing) or as "Yahka icta wawa kwonesum kahkwa sun," "That thing that talks (tells time) always-the-same as the sun." These different methods of idea-expression show the way an Indian is apt to use word combinations to express an idea when he does not know a definite name-word meaning for the thing he wants to talk about.

TOBACCO.

CHINOOS.

Ch  together, I as in tin; oo as in coo; accent  chin  and pronounce Chin-noo s s with hissing sound of s at end of last syllable.

 Chinoos is Chinook for tobacco and nearly always means smoking tobacco. It never means the "killikinick" mixture, but always tobacco and nothing else. A cigar is "stick-chinoos." Pipe tobacco is simply "chinoos," or sometimes "Tenas chinoos" (Little tobacco), or "Kokshut chinoos" (All-broken up tobacco) Chewing tobacco is "Muck a muck chinoos." Use same as English "tobacco" is used in conversation.

GRANDMOTHER.

CHITSH.

Chi  as in chicken;  tsh  together with slight sound of short i as "tish"; accent  chit  and pronounce Chit-(i)sh.

 This word is rarely used and, while it is Chinook, not one Chinook speaker in a hundred would know its meaning except around the mouth of the Columbia River.

GRANDFATHER.

CHOPE.

Accent  cho  and pronounce Cho pe.

 What is said about "Chitsh" also applies to "Chope." Both words are used only in a small territory at the mouth of the Columbia River and are almost obsolete so far as general understanding of Chinook goes.

WATER      ANY LIQUID SUBSTANCE.

CHUCK.

 Pronounce exactly the same as English.

 "Chuck" primarily means "water" but is flexible and is used to mean the idea of liquid of any kind though more commonly used in connection with and to mean water. The words used before or after it fix its meaning and the word "chuck" used before or after other words fix the meaning of the other word to be "connected with" water or liquid.

 Examples:  "Okeoke chuck," "That (is) water." "Okeoke pil-chuck," "That (is) blood" (literally "red water"). "Okeoke cultas tí kope-chuck," "That (is) bad white-water" (literally meaning a river rapid or a breaking sea, etc.). "Skookum-chuck okeoke," "Good water that (is)." "Hyas salt-chuck," "Great (everywhere) salt water." (Literally "the ocean.") "Tum-chuck," "Water-that-falls." "Nesika chaco copo chuck," "We came over (or on) the water." "Kah okeoke chuck?" "Where is that water?" "Nika comtox Skagit chuck?" "Do you know (or know where is the) Skagit River?" "Halo muckamuck okeoke cultas-chuck!" "Do not drink that bad water! (it is bad, not fit to drink)."

 Almost any combination of words can be used so that "chuck" couples the "water idea" or "liquid idea" with the other idea or ideas in mind, the shades of meaning being made clear by the combination-use to express the definite idea. "Piah-chuck" thus means "whiskey" (or any liquor containing alcohol) but the actual word is the combination of "fire" and "water" meaning "The-water-that-is-as-hot-to-the-taste-as-fire"    all this idea being condensed into the idea-symbol "firewater" by use of the word "chuck" (water) prefixed by the word "Piah" (fire) so that the simple saying of "firewater" (piah-chuck) covers the whole alcoholic-liquor catalogue in the hearerís mind and yet at the same time makes his mental process single out "whiskey" as the special or commonly-used meaning because whiskey is the strongest or most "fiery" of all "firewaters." "Tar" could be "klale sitkum-chuck" or "black half-water," meaning "a black-substance that is half-fluid" or "half-water-like."

 Any idea of water or fluid can be expressed by remembering that "chuck" is the word for "water" or "water-like" or anything of fluid or liquid nature. Just how you use it must depend on what you talk about, where you are in relation to the "chuck," what it has to do with the subject in hand and many other things that bear on "chuck" but you can always use it to mean "water" or "liquid" or "fluid" of any kind and it will be right in Chinook.

COLD.

COLE.

 Corruption of the English word "Cold." Pronounce as written.

 "Cole" in Chinook means usually just the same as "cold" in English and is used exactly as we use it. The comparative cold is brought out in the sentence by using prefix words to fix the degree of cold. Chinook has no words for "cool," "cooler." "coolest"    it is all "cold"    either "Tenas cole," (little cold), "Hiyu cole" (much cold), or "Delate hiyu cole" (very much cold), as the case may be, but it is always "cole" in some form. "Wake cole," is "not very cold" and "Halo cole," is "no cold." Use it accordingly. "Ict cole" is used to mean "a year" in the sense of "one winter." "Ict cole ahncuttie" is therefore "One year ago." The "year" meaning is not so much used, however, as "cole" is usually used to indicate some degree of "cold" as above.

UNDERSTAND      I UNDERSTAND      DO YOU UNDERSTAND?      RECOGNIZE      BELIEVE      KNOW.

COMTOX.

C has sound of k; o as in come; o as in ox; accent  com  and pronounce Kom tox.

 "Comtox" is the symbol word for "understand" in every way. If you do, or do not, understand the case is covered by "comtox" used in some way. Understanding, positive knowledge and recognition are all "comtox" in Chinook. The word fixes the fact of understanding or knowledge wherever it is used either in a positive or negative sense. The words used as a prefix or following it in a sentence taken together with the surroundings, time, place, objects, etc., are what determine the exact shade of meaning, but it is always a symbol word for "understand" in some way.

 Examples:  "Nika comtox," "I understand." "Halo comtox nika," "I understand not." (literally, "No understand, me.") "Klosh nanage pe klosh comtox," "Watch closely and get a good understanding (or knowledge of)." (Literally, "Good watch and good understand (get).") "Nika comtox hiyu huloime mamook." "I know (or understand) many different (kinds of) work." "Mika comtox pepah wawa?" "Do you understand paper-talk?" (Can you read and write?). "Mahsh nika comtox," "I have forgotten." (Literally, "Thrown away, I my understanding (have).")

RACE      RUN FAST      TRAVEL.

COOLEY.

Accent  cool  and pronounce Coo ley.

 The word "Cooley" is one of the words in Chinook having a double meaning. Used in one way it indicates "speed in running," "racing," etc. Used in the other sense it means to travel slowly, to wander about, to saunter along, to "take a walk" without any particular object. Note that "Cultas," used as a prefix word, changes it entirely from indicating speed to indicating almost the idea of leisure or laziness. The double meaning is brought out in the following:

 Examples:  (First meaning) "Okeoke nika cooley kuitan," "That is my race horse." "Mesika chaco delate cooley," "We came in a hurry." (We kept hurrying as we traveled.) "Nika Kowmux comtox cooley delate." "My dog knows how to run well." (Second meaning): "Mesika mamook cultas cooley." "We will take a walk," (meaning to saunter without fixed purpose or destination.)

 Note: "Cultas," used thus in Chinook, makes the meaning really "pleasure," whereas "Cultas" alone means bad. This is one of the peculiar things about Chinook, and occurs only in the use of a few words    yet an Indian will often give a twist to a sentence that will employ some word just as "cultas" is employed here to give a very different meaning from the usual meaning of the word he uses    and yet the listener will easily get the meaning intended. A white man very rarely uses any word in its double-meaning sense, whereas an Indian will often do so.

WITH      TOGETHER WITH      HERE      THERE      YONDER      AT      IN      OUT      OVER      UNDER      BY      FOR      FROM      TO      INTO      BESIDE      AWAY FROM      OUT OF      THROUGH      INSTEAD      THAT PLACE      THIS PLACE      THE SAME AS      IN PLACE OF      AROUND      TOWARDS      ON      OFF, ETC.

COPO.

Give c sound of k; both oís as in oat; just a trace of h sound at end; accent  co  and pronounce Ko poh.

 Very frequently this word is spoken with a "t" at the end; in this case the second "o" sound very nearly disappears and the word becomes when spoken more like Ko pít with "o" long sound as first syllable and so shortened in last syllable as to sound almost "pt." I think this form is in fact the most commonly used but the meaning is always the same. This word can be described as a "coupling word" to connect any two words, any two ideas, any combination of ideas or to couple thing to thing, man with thing, man with man, place with place, object with place or thing, etc. It is one of the most hard worked words in Chinook because it fits in almost any place where a "coupler" or joining word is needed. Its uses are manifold as an adverb and conjunction and it is at the same time the principal preposition used in Chinook    yet it is not, according to English grammar, either an adverb, conjunction or preposition. It is really just what I call it, a "coupling word." In some cases it conveys an idea and then in the next sentence it may be used to bring out an exactly opposite meaning. Taken alone it means at, in, out, over, under, around-about, within, together with, for, from, to, into, out of, towards, away from, here, there, yonder, alongside of, than, in there, that place, this place, through, instead, in place of, all the same as, of, on, and many more. It is a "handy" word    use it when nothing else seems to fit to join ideas together and you can hardly get it used in the wrong place.

 Examples:  "Chaco copo nika," "Come with me." "Mox man klatawa copo," "Two men went (or go) together." "Wake nika nanage kowmux copo mika," "I saw no dog with you." "Copo kah?" "Where?" (or whereabouts?) "Mesika wawa copo ictas copo yowah copo ict sun copo cole pe klosh nanage konaway man copo mesika." This means "We talked ABOUT things OVER there FOR one day IN winter and all men kept close watch ON us." Capital letters denote use of word "Copo." This sentence shows how the word can "fit in" almost anywhere and have many different meanings and still, taken all together with other words, convey a fixed descriptive idea. Practice in speaking Chinook very quickly makes the use of it almost automatic and it is always at the tip of the tongue ready to use anywhere.

HOG      PIG      ANY KIND OF PORK MEAT.

COSHO.

C has k sound; o as in oat in both syllables; accent  co  and pronounce Ko sho.

 "Cosho" means pig or any kind of pig meat, bacon, ham, sidemeat, etc. Lard is "Cosho gleece." Literally, "Pig grease." A seal is a "Siawash chuck-cosho," or "Chuck-cosho," literally, "(Indian) waterpig." The word is also elastic enough to mean "fat." and in this meaning is used as "Delate cosho," "very fat" or (idea) really "very fat-like a pig."     Examples:  "Okeoke nika Cosho." "That is my pig." "Nika tika cosho gleece," "I want some lard" (Pig fat). "Yahka hiyu cosho man," "He (that man) is a very-fat-like a pig man."

BAD.

CULTAS.

C has sound of k; u as in cup; a as in hat; end with shortened hissing sound of s on end. Accent  cul  and pronounce Kul tas.

 "Cultas" alone means "bad." Different degrees of bad are made plain by prefix or follow up words to make the meaning plain. "Cultas" is always the opposite of "klosh" (good) and many times the opposite of "skookum" (strong), being thus used to convey the idea of weakness, particularly of structural weakness of fabric or material. A sometimes-use of "cultas" makes it have (as a qualifying word) a meaning of "pleasure" which seems directly opposite its common or usual meaning and thus a "pleasure trip" or trip taken entirely for pleasure becomes in Chinook a "cultas-cooley" and "cultas" thereby loses its meaning of "bad" and is transformed into a word covering the idea of "pleasure"    which is one of the curious twists one finds occasionally in speaking Chinook.

 Its usual or common use is, however, to bring out the idea of "bad," "worthless," "useless," "worn out," "no good." "listless," "imperfect," "defective," "no strength," etc.

 Examples:  "Mesika klatawa copo cultas cooley," "We will go (or are going) on a pleasure trip." "Yahka man mamook cultas hehe tanze copo kah mitlite," "That man made a dancing party at his home." (Literally, "That man made (or gave) a pleasure-dance in the house where he makes his home.")

 Usual use Examples:  "Okeoke cultas," "That is bad" (or no good). "Nika cultas tumtum," "I mourn" (or feel-badly in my mind). "Mahsh okeoke cultas esick," "Throw away that bad (poor, defective, useless) paddle." "Okeoke canim hyas oleman pe delate cultas," "That canoe is very old and no good" (worn-out). "Cultas nika, halo mamook." "No-good I; not work" (I am not well, not feeling good, (and) will not work (now) at this time). "Chim delate cultas man," "Jim is a very bad man."

 The negative idea "not good" (wake klosh) is very frequently used in place of "cultas" but it is usually understood to have less force than "cultas"    that is, if you say "Okeoke wake klosh," you say "That is not good" (or no good), but it infers that in your opinion "that is no good." In other words, it is not a positive assertion, whereas if you say "Okeoke delate cultas," you say positively that "That is bad (or no good), and beyond a doubt you know it to be bad or no good, in this case, while you are not sure about it when you say "Wake klosh."

VERY.

DELATE.

E as in eat; a as in skate; last e silent; accent  late  and pronounce Dee late.

 This word taken alone means "very." but it is nearly always used to emphasize a statement of fact    to affirm the truth of a saying, to make a statement authentic beyond question, to add the element of certainty, correctness, truth, surety and sincerity to any saying or statement. It covers the whole idea of emphasis and can always be used to affirm or confirm. In speaking Chinook it is usually used to strengthen an idea, thus: "Okeoke klosh," "That is good." "Nowitka. DELATE klosh." "Yes, VERY good." "Delate nika chaco sick," "Very (much) I come (become) sick" (Literally. "I am very sick." "Delate hiyu." "A VERY great many." "Delate cultas man," "(He is a) VERY bad man." In short, "Delate" is always used to strengthen the idea indicated and to add weight to its meaning. Its use makes a statement or assertion positive and removes the element of doubt.

THE DEVIL.

DIAUB.

I as in dine; au together with a as in awe; accent  aub  and pronounce Die aub.

 "Diaub" is the Chinook symbol for the devil, satan, hell, and the whole idea of the satanic. It is used exactly as English "Devil" is used to express the idea of Satan. When hell is meant then it becomes "The-land-of-the-devil." "Illahee copo diaub." Otherwise use as English.

DRY.

DLY.

 "Dly" is the Indian way of saying "dry" and lacks the "r" of the English word, replacing "r" with "l." The meaning and use in Chinook is the same as dry is used in English as it is simply a corruption of English "dry."

 Examples:  "Mamook dly okeoke pish," "Dry those fish." "Halo chuck, delate dly," "No water, very dry."

PHYSICIAN      DOCTOR OF MEDICINE.

DOCTIN (or LADOCTIN).

Doc  same as English;  tin  same as English; and pronounce. Doc-tin.

 "Doctin" is a corruption of the English word "Doctor" and is used as English "doctor" would be used in all cases. The kind of a doctor is indicated by following words, thus: "Doctin copo lemesin," "A physician" (doctor of medicine). "Doctin copo seeowist," "A doctor of the eyes" (occulist). "Doctin copo letah," "A doctor of teeth" (dentist).

DOLLAR      MONEY.

DOLLAH.

 Corruption of the English word "Dollar." Silver is "Tícope dollah." Gold is "Pil dollah." Half-dollar is "Sitkum dollah." This word is used around towns or where Indians come in frequent contact with white men. The word usually used for "money" is "chickamun" (metal), though "chickamun dollah" is a common way of saying or meaning "metal money." The usual use is thus: "Tícope chickamun dollah," "A silver dollar." "Kwinum pil-chickamun dollah," "Five-dollar gold piece." "Sitkum dollah" is correct for "half of a dollar" and "chickamun" is never used with it.

 Note:  Money of less denominations than half dollars is usually counted in quarters ("kwahtah") "dimes" and "sitkum dime" (half-dime    "nickel"). In the Northwest the word "Bit" is used to mean "dime" and "two bits" is a quarter. Chinook uses the same terms.

BEFORE      IN FRONT OF.

ELIP.

E as in eat; i as in hit: accent (and slightly hold) e as first syllable; pronounce E e lip.

 The primary and common use of "Elip" is to mean "before" (me), "in front of." etc. It is also used as a prefix for other words to show prior or "before" rights and to raise the age value of words, to make some other word mean "more of the same" than it would without "Elip" used as a prefix.

 Examples:  "Elip konaway," "Before (ahead of) all." "Elip klosh," "More good (better than good)." "Elip ow copo nika," "My younger brother." "Elip sitkum sun," "Before midday" (forenoon). "Klatawa clip nika," "Go in front of me." "Nika chaco clip mika," "I came before you (did)."

BEAVER.

ENA.

E as in eat; a as in father with breath sound of h following; accent  e  and pronounce E nah.

 "Ena" is the Chinook word for "Beaver," the name of the animal, and is used just as we would use any like name in English.

 Examples:  "Okeoke ena," "That (is) a beaver." "Klosh skin copo ena okeoke," "That is a fine beaver skin." (Good skin of a beaver that (is).) "Nika comtox kah mitlite hiyu ena," "I know where there are plenty (of) beaver." (Literally, "I know where live many beaver.")

ACROSS      TO CROSS OVER.

ENATI.

E as in hen; a as in hay; i as in high; accent and dwell slightly on  en , make sound of a quickly, and partially or half accent  ti ; pronounce En-n-a tie.

 "Enati" is used to cover the whole idea of "across" or "cross over," to "get on the other side of." It is almost always used in connection with crossing over water, mountains or any space or territory requiring travel, though it is, and can be, used anywhere that the idea of "crossing over" anything is concerned.

 Examples:  "Enati nika chaco clip mika." Literally, "Across I came before you (did)" or "I crossed ahead of you." "Mesika klatawa enati yahka chuck," "We (will) cross over the water." "Mesika mitlite enati yahka lamount'n," "They live over (on the other side of, or across) the mountains." "Wake lalie nika chaco enati," "Before long I will cross (or come across) over." "Siah enati yowah," "Away (far away) across there."

MUSKRAT.

ENAPOOH.

E as in eat: a as in father: oo as in coo, with breath sound of h following; accent  ena  and pronounce E nah pooh.

 Name of the muskrat from "Ena" (beaver) and "pooh" (smell-strong). "Enapooh"    "stinking beaver." (Note: The muskrat is sometimes, but not often, called the "Big-water-rat" (chuck hias-hoolhool).

 "Enapooh" in Chinook is used just as "Muskrat" would be used in English and is the name of a particular animal and nothing else.

 Examples:  "Enapooh," "Muskrat." "Hiyu enapooh nika mamook memaloose," "I killed many muskrats." (Many muskrats I made-dead.) "Konaway enapooh yahka tipso delate klosh," "All muskrat he (his) fur (is now) very good." "Konce chickmun mika potlatch copo tipso enapooh?" "How much do you pay for muskrat skins?"

A PADDLE OR OAR.

ESICK.

E as in easy; i as in sick; accent e and pronounce E sick.

 "Esick" is the Chinook name for "paddle" or "oar" but is used mostly to mean a "canoe paddle." Very common word.

 Examples:  "Okeoke nika esick," "That (is) my paddle." "Nika iskum delate klosh oleman esick," "I have a very fine old paddle." (Old paddles, if good and sound, were considered better than new, untried ones.) "Nika tika tatlum klootchman esick hyak; konce chickamun?" "I want ten woman-paddles (paddles for women to use) quick; how much money (do you want for them)?" "Okeoke delate klosh pent esick," "That is a fine painted paddle."

GREASE.

GLEECE.

 Corruption of English "Grease."

 "Gleece" is the Chinook symbol word for grease, oil or fat of any kind: anything greasy is spoken of as "with grease." Use as in English.

 Examples:  "Nika tika moosmoos gleece." "I want some butter" (cow-grease). "Mika iskum gleece copo piah?" (or lamp) "Have you oil for the lamp?" ("Lamp" is usually used as in English.) "Yahka man delate gleece." "That man (he) is very fat." ("Yahka man delate cosho," "That man (he) is very fat-like a pig," is more often used to describe a fat person, though either way is right and can be used.)

NO.

HALO.

A as in hay; o as in oat; accent  ha  and pronounce Hay-low.

 "Halo" is the word of positive denial used exactly as is English "No" and in many cases elastic enough to mean "not" or "do not," but used in this way usually as a command as "Halo klatawa mika!" (Literally, "No go you," the English command, "Do not go.") "Halo nika nanage." (Literally, "Not I see," English idea of "I do not see" or "I have not seen" or "I will not see," depending entirely on immediately prior conversation. In an ordinary sense the word "Wake" is used to mean "not," "do not," "will not," "shall not," "may not," "cannot," and like ideas, but "Wake" is not used to mean "No" as "Halo" is. Both words are used to mean "not any," which one depending on what the talk is about and the words used with it.

 Examples:  "Chaco mika?" "Come you?" "Halo," "No." "Chaco mika?" "Come you?" "Wake tumtum," "I think not." "Halo chaco mika?" "Not come you?" "Wake comtox," "I am in doubt; I know not as yet; I am undecided." "Chaco mika?" "Come you?" "Halo nika." "Not I." (Literally, "No me.") "Halo" and "Wake" are in a way interchangeable, but "Halo" is positive "no" always where "Wake" can be negative and still convey the idea of doubt more than "Halo" does; in other words, "Halo" is the positive "no" and should be so used.

OPEN.

HAHLAKL.

A as in father in both syllables; accent  hah  and pronounce Hah-lah-kle, shortening second and third syllables as much as possible so the sound of both combined is more "-lah-kahl" spoken very short and in a nearly explosive manner. A little practice will make it easy.

 The word "Hahlakl" means "Open," "to open," as a door; "open out," to "thin" as woods, etc. It is not in very common use.

PULL      DRAW      DRAG.

HAUL.

 English word, pronounce as in English.

 "Haul" in Chinook covers the idea of "pull," "haul," "drag," "tow," etc. It is equivalent to the English definition of English "Haul" and is used the same way.

 Examples:  "Mamook haul okeoke," "Drag that (haul it) over here." (Literally, "Make haul that.") "Mamook haul sahale nika canim copo polalie illahee," "Haul your canoe up on the sand." (Literally, "Make haul up your canoe on (the) sand.") "Yowah! Iskum lope pe nika haul mika canim," "Here! Get (this) rope and. I will tow your canoe."

LAUGH      FUN      JOY.

HEEHEE.

E as in we; accent first syllable and pronounce as written, Hee hee.

 "Heehee" covers the whole idea of mirth and joy in Chinook. It also means "play" in the sense of recreation. "Mamook heehee" (make fun) is to join in the festivities if used in the ordinary way, though it could mean "laugh" or "did laugh" ("Nika mamook heehee").

 Examples:  "Chaco pe mamook heehee," "Come and (we will) make fun." "Delate heehee yahka mamook," "A great celebration (it was) be (made) gave." "Okeoke kowmux mamook tanze kahkwa man, delate heehee okeoke," "That dog made a dance like a man, very funny was that." "Halo mamook, okeoke cultas, wake heehee," "Do not (do it) that bad; no fun." "Spose heehee, mika chaco?" "If (there is a) celebration (of any kind) (will) you come?" "Klosh heehee mesika, a ah," "We had a good time    we are well pleased." (Literally, "Good fun us, a ah.")

MUCH      MUCH OF      A GREAT QUANTITY      PLENTY      A GREAT DEAL OF.

HIYU.

I as in high; u as in union with a slight breath sound of h as though it were Uh with the h a breath sound only, following u spoken "you-h," accent  hi  and slightly hold the  i  and pronounce Hi-i-you h.

 "Hiyu" is one of the very common words of Chinook and is used mostly as a prefix to fix the idea of "plenty-of" in connection with other words. It is the symbol of "much," "plenty of," "a great amount of," "great numbers," "a large amount of the same thing," etc. It adds length to distance, bulk to size, numbers to an amount, "more" to anything, etc., when used as a prefix. It is also used as a prefix to "Tenas" to make "Tenas" mean "more small" or "smaller." Used the same way with "Halo" (no) or "Wake" (not) it increases the value of both words by making them more positive, thus: "Hiyu halo," "Positively, no." Literally, "A great-deal-more-no." "Wake hiyu lalie," "Not very long (ago or in the future)." Literally, "Not-much long time."

 The commonly expressed use of "Hiyu," however, is to increase value rather than to decrease, so it stands in Chinook as the word-symbol for the general idea of "plenty" and is rarely used otherwise by those who talk Chinook fluently.

 Examples:  "Nika iskum hiyu tilacums," "I have many friends (or, sometimes, relations)." "Hiyu pish mika iskum," "Many fish you have (or caught)." "Hiyu delate siah," "It is very far." (Literally, "Hiyu," plenty; "delate," much; "siah," far (it is).) "Hiyu kahkwah nika," "Very much (plenty) like me." "Hiyu man chaco," "Many (plenty of) men come (are coming)." Negative example: "Tenas hiyu okeoke man tika," "A small amount only that man desires." (He only wants a little bit.) "Wake hiyu nika seowist," "I did not see many." (Literally, "Not many I see, or saw.")

MOUSE.

HOOLHOOL.

Oo as in coo; accent first syllable and pronounce as written, Hool hool.

 "Hoolhool" means "mouse." By using "Tenas" as a prefix (Tenas hoolhool) it means "little mouse." If "Hyas" is used as a prefix (Hyas hoolhool) the meaning becomes "Big mouse," and is used thus to mean the common rat. "Chuck hyas-hoolhool" is a muskrat, though the muskrat is nearly always called "Enapooh" (stink-beaver). "Hoolhool" is not a very common word and is used more by Indian women who work about ranches for white women than anywhere else. You might not hear it once in a year.

BUILDING      HOUSE OF ANY KIND.

HOUSE.

 The English word used in the same sense and meaning as English. Usually the Chinook words precede it to fix the kind of a house, ownership, color, material, etc.

 Examples:  "Okeoke mika house?" "(Is) that your house?" "Konaway house yowah delate oloman," "All (the) houses there (are) very old. "Nika tika laplash, mamook house," "I want lumber (to) build (a) house." "Klaxtah house okeoke?" "Whose house is it?" "Mitlite copo skookum house." "Put in (live in) the stronghouse (jail)."

SHIVER      SHAKE.

HULLEL.

U as in hull; e as in well; accent  lel  and pronounce Hull lel.

 "Hullel" means "shiver" or "shake" but is so uncommon that it is almost obsolete. "Mamook" used as a prefix makes it mean "shivering" or "shaking." Hardly ever used, however, even by expert Chinook speakers.

DIFFERENT      STRANGER      SEPARATE FROM      OTHER THAN.

HULOIME.

U as in hull:  oi  as in oil: e as in meet: accent  oi  and pronounce Hull-loy-mee with first syllable used as a short breath sounded syllable: second syllable accented and held slightly longer than first syllable and last syllable short-spoken.

 Primarily the word means "different" or "different from." It is flexible enough to be used both as a prefix and a following word to qualify other words and fix the idea of "different" "different from," "stranger" or "stranger to me," "other than," "unlike," etc. If you are American you would call an Indian "Huloime-man," meaning, "He belongs to a different people," or "the people of this man and my people are different    not of the same blood." The word is usually used in this sense though it can and does cover the whole idea of "unlike" "other than," or "different from." Ordinarily, however, things, objects etc., that are unlike are spoken of as "Halo kahkwah" (not like) or as "Wake kahkwah," which means the same though not so positively. In other words, "Halo kahkwah" really symbolizes the idea, "I know they are not alike," while "Wake kahkwah" would mean more the idea of "I think they are not alike." The word "Wake" infers doubt though it could mean that the speaker knows of his own knowledge also. "Huloime" is always used to mean the opposite of "Kahkwah," which means "like" or "the-same-as."

 Examples:  "Huloime tilacum," "A stranger    a man belonging to a different race." "Huloime nika ictas," "Not like yours (my things are)." (Unlike articles.) "Huloime oiahut mesika chaco" "By a different road we came." "Hyas hu1oime nika," "Very much (big) different am I" (I am very unlike (him, you), etc. "Halo huloime mika," "Not different (people) (are you) from me." ("You do not belong to a people, you are the same blood (that I am).") "Huloime wawa nika," "Different (speech) you talk (from me)." ("Your language is different from mine.") The word can be used in many ways, sometimes to follow other word groups to imply or indicate the idea of "different from" though it usually begins the sentence it is used in and thereby fixes the idea of "different from" whatever is being talked about.

BAD SMELL      STINK.

HUMM.

U as in hum; the m sound nasal and drawn out, pronounce like English "Hum" and then hold m sound to prolong the word thus, Hum m m.

 "Humm" means "Stink." It is applied to mean any decided odor either good or bad, but more commonly used to mean a stench or "bad stink." The skunk is called "Humm-opoots" or, literally, "Stinks-his-tail," and serves to show the full meaning of "Humm" as meaning "Stink." "Poo" is also used to mean stink, but "Humm" is the more commonly used of the two.

 Examples:  "Delate humm! Klonas halo ict kuitan chaco memaloose," "(There is a) very (bad) smell    perhaps (not) one horse has died." "Lolo konaway pish copo salt chuck pe mamook mahsh    yahka chaco ahncuttie memaloose    hiyu delate cultas humm!" "Carry all (of those) fish to (the) salt water and throw them away (in). They come dead a long time, they very bad smell."

FAST      SWIFT HURRY.

HYAK.

Y sounds as i in high; a as in fat; accent  hy  and pronounce High-ak.

 This word always indicates speed in some degree and is qualified by using "Hyas" (big), "Hiyu" (many) "Delate" (very), or a combination of these words used as a prefix to increase the speed indicated. If negative speed (decreased speed) less speed, slower, slowly or slow down, is to be indicated, then "Tenas," "Wake hiyu," "Halo," "Wake," "Delate tenas," or any other suitable combination of words meaning "no," "not," "less," "less than," "slower," "not so much as," "smaller," etc., is used as a prefix. Words indicating the general idea of "much" or "many" increase the speed indicating value of "Hyak" when used as a prefix and words indicating the general idea of "small," "little," etc., decrease the speed-indicating value of "Hyak" when used as a prefix.

 Examples:  "Chaco hyak!" "Come (in a) hurry!" "Wake hyak!" "Not (so) fast." "Tenas hyak chaco!" "Come slower!" "Delate tenas hyak mika," "You are very (much) slow." (Literally, "(A) very little hurry you (are now in)." "Not much (do) you hurry." "Hurry not you (do).") "Delate hyas hyak chaco mika!" "Hurry as fast as you can!" (Literally, "Very big fast, come yon.") "Hyas hyak nika chaco!" "I (am) coming as fast as I can!" (Literally, "Big-fast I (am) coming (now).")

 "Hyak" is the "speed" or "hurry" word always, no matter how it is used and it can mean speed or no speed, depending on the words with it as above.

BIG      GREAT SIZE      LARGE BULK.

HYAS.

I as in high; a as in hat; accent  hy  and pronounce High as.

 "Hyas" is the size word in Chinook. Used alone it means "great size," "large," "great amount of," or any other idea of "bigness." The size is increased by using "Delate" as a prefix word. "Delate hyas" thus means "bigger than big" and by using "Hiyu" as a prefix for "Delate" the size is still further increased, thus, "Hiyu Delate hyas" means "very very large," and then if the idea of vastness is to be expressed the whole three words should be drawn out slowly in pronouncing, thus, "Hi i i yu de l a a a a ate hy y y y yas" meaning "more (in bulk, size or distance) than any one knows (or can comprehend") "Tenas" used as a prefix decreases the size, thus, "Tenas hyas" means "little-big" or, literally, "Not so much of it"    "smaller," etc., and still smaller size can be expressed by using the words "Hiyu" or "Delate" or both of them as prefix words before "Tenas hyas," though the idea of "small," "little," etc., is usually expressed through like modification of the word "Tenas" alone and "Hyas" is nearly always used and understood to mean "big" or "bulky" and "tenas" the opposite, or "littler" "small," etc.

 The word "Hyas" is almost always associated with the idea of bulk, great quantity, big, etc.

 Examples:  "Hyas klosh mamook mika," "You did a large amount of good work." (Big-good worker you.) "Hyas Sunday," "Big Sunday." (Christmas the day-like a big-Sunday.) "Hyas tyee," "The big (head) chief." "Okeoke delate hyas stick," "That (is a) very big tree (or timber)." "Klaska okeoke hyas man?" "Who is that big man?" "Hiyu del a a ate hy y y as okeoke piah canim," "Very, very large (is) that fire ship (steamer)." "Mesika mamook hyas klosh tahmahnawis house," "We built a very large church." "Delate hyas okeoke lamountín" "Very large (are) those mountains."

ONE.

ICT.

I as in it; c has sound of k; t short, and pronounce Ikt.

 "Ict" is the Chinook for the numeral "one" and has no other meaning, it is always "one" and no more.

 Examples. "Ict," "One." "Okeoke ict klosh kuitan," "That (is) one good horse." Used to mean a very good horse, a horse that stands alone on account of good qualities.) "Ict man chaco," "One man came." (One man alone came; no more than one man.)

WHAT      WHAT IS IT?

ICTA.

I as in pick; give c sound of k; a as in father with h sound following; accent  ic  and pronounce Ik tah h h h.

 "Icta" is the question symbol of Chinook and is used any place where the English question "what?" would be used. This covers all such ideas as "What is it?" "What was it?" "What will it be?" "What did it?" "What will it?" etc. It always precedes the rest of the sentence where it is used and questions everything.

 Examples:  "Icta okeoke?" "What (is, was or will be) that?" "Icta mamook okeoke?" "What does (did or will do) that?" "Icta mika tika?" "What do you desire (want or wish for)?" "Icta man?" "What man?" "Icta," "What?" (interrogation). "Icta mika mamook?" "What (are) you do(ing)?"

 "Kahtah" is sometimes used in place of "Icta" but infrequently. "Kahtah" really means "Why?" or "How?" more than "What?" though it is used to mean "what" also. Good Chinook speakers, however, nearly always use "Icta," to mean "What" in place of "Kahtah," and use the latter for "Why" and "How." "Icta" should be used altogether to mean "what" and the student will do well to use it so    using "Kahtah" for "How" and "Why."

GOODS      BELONGINGS      PERSONAL PROPERTY OF ANY KIND      THINGS BELONGING TO ANY ONE.

ICTAS.

I as in it; c has sound of k; a as in father; accent  ic ; the sound is more as though the word was spelled Ik tahz with accent on  ik .

 "Ictas" is a collective-personal-property symbol used in Chinook to mean any and all kinds of "things," mostly of a personal property nature (but not altogether). It can mean "anything" or "any property" or "all things" or "all my things," "all his things," "belongings," "goods." etc. It covers the whole idea of "things" of all kinds and of any nature. A very common Chinook word with a multitude of apt uses.

 Examples:  "Kah mika ictas?" "Where (are) your things?" (Belongings, property, etc.) "Nika ictas mitlite copo nika house," "My things are at my house." "Mamook tenas hiyu ictas copo lecasset pe chaco," "Put a few things in the trunk and come on." "Kah nika tika okeoke ictas?" "Where (do) you want these things (put)?" (Idea, "Where will you have me put these things?")

SHUT      CLOSE UP.

IKPOOIE.

I as in hit; oo as in coo; i as in it: accent  poo  and pronounce Ik poo ie.

 "Ikpooie" means "to shut," "close up," "stop up," etc. It is not very commonly used and is more apt to be heard in connection with such ideas as "caulk the boat seams" (Mamook ikpooie okeoke canim) than anywhere else. "Mamook ikpooie yahka lapote," "Shut the door" (Make the door close up), is good Chinook but not often used. You might not hear the word used once in a year.

LAND      EARTH      ANY PART OF THE EARTH.

ILLAHEE.

I as in ill; a as in fate; ee as in free; accent  ill  and pronounce Ill a hee.

 "Illahee" is the word symbol for earth, the ground, any part of the earth, land of any kind, etc. It is usually, if not entirely, used with a qualifying prefix word which fixes the kind of earth, the position of the land spoken of, the ownership of the land, the relationship of the land to anything else, etc. "Illahee" alone means "the land."

 Examples. "Okeoke nika illahee," "This (is) my land." (Meaning this land belongs to me, it is my own, my home.) "Copo polallie illahee," "In (over, by, alongside of) the sand-earth." (Literally "Polallie illahee," "Powder earth.") "Klale illahee okeoke" "Black land that is." "Siah, copo cole-snass illahee," "Far (up) in the snow-ground." (High up in the mountains.) "Kah mika illahee?" (Literally, "Where (is) your land (home)?") "Where do you live, where is your home ground?" "Konce siah okeoke illahee?" "How far (away is) that land (country)?" "Okeoke klosh illahee" "That (is) good ground." "Moosmoos muckamuck illahee," "Cow pasture." (Literally, "Cattle (where they) eat ground.")

LOUSE.

INAPOO.

I as in ink; a as in father; oo as in coo; accent  in  and pronounce In a poo.

 The Chinook name for louse. Not very commonly used except with the prefix word "Sopena" (jump), thus, "Sopena inapoo," "A jump-louse" (flea).

SECRET      HIDDEN.

IPSOOT.

I as in if; oo as in coo; accent  ip  and pronounce Ip soot.

 "Ipsoot" means "secret," "hidden," "concealed," etc. Not very commonly used.

 Examples:  "Nika mamook ipsoot konaway piahchuck," "I have made-hidden all (the) whiskey." "Halo wawa mesika ipsoot," "Do not tell our secret" (Keep it to yourself). "Nika canim hiyu ipsoot, halo nika klap, klosh nanage copo konaway illahee," "My canoe is (big) hidden, I cannot find (it), I have looked all (over) the land (for it)." (Idea: "My canoe is gone, I can not find it though I have looked everywhere.")

TO GET      RECEIVE      ACCEPT      ACQUIRE      HAVE      HAS.

ISKUM.

I as in it; hissing s; u as in up; dwell slightly on m as a nasal sound; accent  is  and pronounce Is s kum-m.

 "Iskum" is the possessive symbol in Chinook and it means to "get," to "take to yourself," to "have and to hold," to "receive, accept or obtain" anything. It covers the whole idea of possession, now, in the past or at some future time. It is used as a prefix word to mean "I will get" and also to mean "I have now in my possession." Usually it follows the object when it means "I did get," but this does not always hold good. In using the word it is always safe to use it to symbolize the ideas of "I get," "I will get," "I did get." The construction of the sentence using it should be after the Indian method, though it is safe to use it just as you would use get in English.

 Examples:  "Iskum okeoke," "Get that." "Nika iskum okeoke wake lalie," "I (will) get that before long." (Literally, "I will-get that not-long.") "Nika iskum konce nika klatawa yowah," "I (will) get (that) when I go there." "Kah mika iskum konaway ictas?" "Where (did) you get all (of those) things?" "Kahtah elip mika iskum?" "How (long) before you (will) get (it)?" "Nika iskum yowah," "I have (it) here." "Spose mika iskum?" "Will you get (it)?"

MEAT      FLESH.

ITLWILLIE.

I as in hit;  tl  together; balance same as "Willie" in English; accent  itl  and pronounce It l-willie. (The word sounds more like the "baby talk," íittle Willie, in English than anything else.)

 "Itlwillie" means "meat," "muscle" or "flesh of," but it is not very commonly used in Chinook except to specify "muscle" and then not often. "Meat" or "flesh" is usually spoken of as (idea) "The-meat-of-the-deer-to-eat," thus. "Mowitch muckamuck" or "Muckamuck copo mowitch." (Deer meat-to-eat or meat-to-eat of the-deer.) "Itlwillie" is very rarely used at all but combinations like the above examples usually are used to designate "meat" or "meat-to-eat." When "Itlwillie" is used at all it is likely to be used in some manner to mean "muscle," thus: "Okeoke man iskum delate itlwillie," "That man has very much muscle." Even in this sense the thought is more apt to be expressed thus, "Okeoke delate skookum man." "That (is a) very strong man."

THE BLACK BEAR.

ITSWOOT.

I as in hit; oo as in coo; accent  its  and pronounce Its-woo t, with the terminal t short and positive.

 Name of the common black bear. No other meaning. Used as "black bear" would be used in English.

 (See "Ena," "beaver"; "Enapoo," "muskrat," etc., for examples.)

(K-N)

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