A as in father; h almost silent; accent  ah  and pronounce as written.

 "Kah" is the symbol of "Where?" in Chinook and is used as English "where" is used mostly. It is also used to designate place in the sense that it fixes "to where" we are going and, to use a slang expression, "where at" we live, etc.

 Examples:  "Kah mika klatawa?" "Where (do) you go?" "Copo kah mika mitlite," "To where I live." "Kah?" "Where?" or "Where is (it)?" "Kah mika chaco?" "Where (did) you come from?" "Kah mika iskum?" "Where (did) you get (it)?" "Mika comtox kah nika tenas man?" "(Do) you know where (is) my little boy?" "Siah yowah kah mitlite itswoot," "Far (away) there, where lives (the) black bear." "Yahka mitlite copo house kah tízum-wawa stick," "He lives in (the) house where (is) the painted-board (sign)."

 Whenever and wherever the English "Where" can be or is used, there "Kah" properly belongs in Chinook to cover the idea of inquiry or to fix place or position and should be so used.



A as in father in both syllables; accent  kah  and pronounce Kahk-wah, with slightly trailing breath "h" sound at end.

 "Kahkwa" alone means "like" in a comparative sense, that is, "like unto," "the same as," etc. It is nearly always used with other word combinations as a prefix that fixes the idea of similarity in any two objects or groups of objects. Sometimes it is used alone but not often. It covers the whole idea of similarity.

 Examples:  "Kahkwa," "Alike (they are)." "Delate kahkwa," "Exactly alike." "Mika kahkwa nika," "You are like me." "Kwonesum kahkwa," "Always alike." "Konaway kahkwa," "All alike (they are)." "Halo kahkwa," "Not alike, not the same, different from." (Literally: "No alike" or "no the same.") "Kahkwa nika tumtum," "I think as you do." (Literally: "The same (as yours) my thoughts are.") "Mox canim kahkwa," "Two canoes just alike." "Halo mamook kahkwa okeoke," "Do not do it that way." (Literally: "No do the same-as-that.")

 Sometimes "Kahkwa" is used in a qualifying way as in the last above sentence, but usually it is used as a qualifying prefix word as in the other examples above.

 "Kahkwa" is also used to determine a like quality as "Kahkwa chickamun," "Like metal." Semi-fluid could be explained by saying it was "like water" (kahkwa chuck), or it could be called "Sitkum chuck" (half-water) and the idea would be understood. The physical, granulated character of sugar could be expressed by saying that it was "like sand" (Kahkwa polalie illahee) or that it was "like gun-powder" (Kahkwa calapeen polalie). A great range of understanding can be expressed thus by the use of "Kahkwa" in one combination or another to mean about what the Chinaman means when he says "Alle same." You cannot say "fly" (to fly) in Chinook but you can easily express the idea thus: "Mamook kahkwa kulakula." (Literally: "Moves-like-a-bird.") Or, again by "Klatawa kahkwa kulakula." (Literally: "Goes-like-a-bird.")

 "Kahkwa" covers the whole range of comparison, similarity, likeness, etc., and should be used to express all ideas dealing with these subjects.



A as in father; o as in over; accent  kah  and pronounce Kah poh.

 Used to mean "Older brother," but very infrequently. Almost useless as very few Chinook speakers would understand its meaning.

HOW      WHY.


A as in father with h breath sound following in both syllables; accent  kah  and pronounce Kah tah.

 "Kahtah" is used in asking all questions of "How?" or "Why?" just as the English words are used. The exact meaning of the word depends on the words used with it coupled with the time, place and conditions under which they are used. If you were to kick your dog and I asked you, "Kahtah mika mamook okeoke?" the meaning would be, "Why did you do that?" But if you were to do a trick, something I did not understand, then I ask the same question with the same words, "Kahtah mika mamook okeoke?" Then the "Kahtah" changes to "How" so that the sentence means, "How did you do that?" The word "Kahtah" is the word symbol for either the idea "how" or the separate idea "why," and the meaning is always determined by the subject in hand, the conditions surrounding the speaker and listener and the words used to follow "Kahtah." This holds good with very many Chinook words and is even more important in sentence-making when Chinook is spoken.



A as in hat; a as in father; lie as ly in lily; accent  kap  and pronounce Kap-swal ly.

 "Kapswallie" covers the whole idea of theft or thief in Chinook and is used in various ways with other word combinations to mean "thief," "thieves," "steal," "stole," "stolen," or any other idea connected with theft.

 Examples:  "Yahka kapswallie man," "He is a thief" (a steal-man). "Konaway nika canim kapswallie!" "All (of) my canoes (have been) stolen!" "Okeoke kapswallie ictas," "Those things (have been) stolen." "Spose kapswallie?" "Do you suppose they will be stolen," or "Shall we steal them?" (depending on circumstances, subject and surroundings). "Okeoke man kapswallie nika tenas klootchman pe mamook mallah," "That man stole my daughter and married her." "Nika kapswallie hiyu kuitan copo Yakima," "I stole a lot of horses from the Yakimas."



A as in hat; u as in up; accent  kat  and pronounce Kat-suk.

 Chinook for "the center." Very little used, however, and almost obsolete. "Sitkum" (half) being almost always used in place of it to mean "half way," "one-half," "the middle," "center," etc. (See "Sitkum.")



 Corruption of thc English word "coffee," and used just as English "coffee" is used. The Indian tongue cannot sound the "F" and always makes it "P," therefore, the word is really "coppee" but this spelling does not quite indicate "coffee" with the "p" substituted for "f" in sounds when the word is spoken, so the "Kaupee" spelling is used.

 Examples:  "Nika tika tenas kaupee," "I want (a) little coffee." "Okeoke klosh kaupee," "That (is) good coffee." "Konce chickamun kaupee    ict pound," "How much (is) coffee    One pound?"



Ee as in feel; a as in fate; i as in high; accent  keel  and pronounce Keel-a pie.

 "Keelapi" is Chinook for "capsize," "turn over," "turn upside down," "upset," "go bottom up," etc. Usually "chaco" (come) is used as a prefix word so that a thing does not simply "upset" but always "comes upset." (This is a common way of constructing ideas in Chinook.)

 Examples. "Klosh nanage, chaco keelapi!" "Look out (you will) come upset!" "Halo keelapi    klosh kahkwa!" "Do not turn it over    it is good as it is!" "Copo delate wind nika sail-house chaco keelapi," "In (the) much wind my tent (came) turned upside-down" "Mamook keelapi okeoke stick," "Turn the log over." "Nika bebe yahka mitlite keelapi copo illahee pe mamook delate heehee," "My baby he lies on his back on the ground and plays a great deal."



E as in me; kw has sound of English q; i as in it; e as in me; accent  ke  and pronounce Key-quill ly.

 Used to mean exactly opposite of "Sahale" (up), its full meaning depending on words used with it, as "Chuck delate kekwillie" would mean "Water-very-deep" or "Far-down-in" (the water (is).) The last by inference of associated ideas and not by spoken words. It is commonly used to mean "deep" or "down" in any sense.

 Examples:  "Mika chaco kekwillie copo nika," "You come down with me." "Nika opitsah klatawa kekwillie copo chuck," "My knife sunk down in the water." "Wake mamook kekwillie! Mamook sahale!" "Donít put it down! Put it up!" "Konce nika mamook poo okeoke mowitch yahka klatawa siah kekwillie copo lamountín pe mitlite copo hyak skookum chuck," "When I shot that deer he (fell) go far (away) down the mountain and landed (stopped) in the swift river." (Idea: "I shot a deer that fell down the mountain and into the swift river.")



I as in him; a as in father; accent  kim  and pronounce Kim tah.

 "Kimtah" covers the whole idea of "following" or "following after," "being the last one," "coming afterwards." It fixes place by meaning the nether or last end, the outside end, etc. It is used in a large variety of ways both as a prefix word and also as a following word to qualify the other words of the sentence. Its meaning depends on how and where it is used.

 Examples:  "Kimtah sitkum sun nika chaco," "This afternoon I (will) come." "Konaway mika delate kimtah," "You are always very late (behind time)." "Nika klatawa clip spose mika chaco kimtah," "I (will) go in front (before) if you (will) come behind." "Mesika chaco kimtah," "(We will) come behind." ("We will follow you." "We will come later.") "Halo mika kimtah nika," "Do not get behind me." (Literally: "No you-behind-me (get).")



 Indian adaptation of "King George," meaning an Englishman. Formerly used extensively to distinguish English people from other white men. Now used so rarely as to be almost obsolete, as the Indian classes all white men together now as one people under the head of "Bosín man," which formerly meant "American" but nowadays means any "white man."



I as in fish; both syllables; accent first syllable and pronounce as written.

 "Kishkish" means "drive away," but is so little used as to be almost obsolete. Not a desirable word in Chinook anyway (all such double words, if retained at all, should be halved and not used in the repeated form).



A as in father; kl together softly; the predominating sound in the word is  ah ; pronounce as written.

 "Klah" alone is a corruption of, and means the same as, the English "clear" in the sense that "The sky is clear," and also in the sense of "stand away from" or "keep clear of." Its meaning with other words is flexible enough to cover the whole idea of "free from," "get away from," "will get free from," etc.

 Examples:  "Nika chaco klah," "You come free-from." (Get away from there so you wonít interfere.) "Wake klah, tumtum snass," "(It is) not clear, (it will) I think, rain (soon)." "Klosh nanage! Klah yahka stone!". "Look out! Keep clear of (them) the rocks!" (This would be used in running a rapid in a canoe, etc.) "Mamook klah okeoke illahee copo stick," "Clear that piece of timber ground." (Literally: "Make clear that ground of (the) timber (now on it).") "Klah okeoke chuck," "Clear that water (is)."



A as in father, both syllables; ie as y in lily; accent  kla  and pronounce Kla-hah ny.

 Chinook word for "outside," "exterior," etc. Very little used, almost obsolete and not one Chinook talker in a hundred would know its meaning nowadays. "Mahsh" is used with other words to take its place nowadays.



A as in father; ow together as in how; a as in father but with a slightly flattened sound of u as in up to end the word; accent  how  and pronounce Kla-how-yah(uh).

 "Klahowya" is the Chinook greeting that covers the same idea as "How are you" in English. Its use is almost entirely limited to the above though in cases it is also used as an answer to a greeting and then means "I am well," "I am all right," etc. It is not often used this way, however.

 Examples:  "Klahowya, tilacum!" "How are you, friend!" "Klosh!" "Good!"

 "Klahowya, tilacum!" "How are you, friend!" "Nika klahowya," "I am well." ("I am all right.") The word "Six" is also frequently used with "Klahowya" instead of "Tilacum," and means "friend" just as "tilacum" does, only in a more limited way    that is, it lacks the various meanings of "Tilacum" and is limited to mean only "friend," hence its use very frequently with the salutation "Klahowya" instead of "Tilacum," thus: "Klahowya six." "Klahowya" is also sometimes used to mean "goodbye" but not often.



 (See "Klahowya.")

 "Klahowyum" practically obsolete now; meaning above given was correct at one time but the word is scarcely used at all nowadays. "Klahowya" was once used in an interchangeable way with "Klahowyum" but the latter is now discarded and "Klahowya" is changed in meaning to the salutation, "How are you?" and only the oldest Indians would know the meaning of "Klahowyum" if used today.



A as in father, both syllables; accent  klah  and pronounce Klah-wah.

 Formerly the word meant "slow," "go slow," "caution," etc., but is practically obsolete now and so little used as to be almost useless to Chinook unless revived. The common way of saying "slow" now is "Wake hyak" (not fast).



 Pronounce as written.

 Original meaning was to "take off," "put away," etc. So little used now as to be practically obsolete.



A as in fate; accent  a  and pronounce as written.

 "Klale" means "black," primarily, though it is often used to mean dark blue or any other very dark color. It is a curious fact that all Indians use the same words to mean "black" or "dark blue" when speaking in their own tongue, and I do not know of any Indians who have different words for "black" and "blue," so it is not surprising that the word "Klale" covers both these colors, and in addition, any other very dark color, in Chinook.

 "Klale" is used to mean dark color in or connected with anything.

 Examples:  "Klale man," "Black man" (negro). "Okeoke klale-pent," "That is black paint." "Nika tika klale sail," "I want some blue cloth" ("Delate-klale," "black".) "Okeoke tízum klale sail klosh," "That black-spotted-cloth (is) good." "Mika nanage nika klale kuitan?" "(Have) you seen my black horse?"



 Pronounce as written.

 "Klap" means "find," "to find," "did find," "will find," or any other idea connected with "find" or "found," and is used accordingly with prefix or following words to bring out the full meaning, just as many other Chinook words are used.

 Examples:  "Tísolo nika opitsah, spose mesika klap?" "Lost my knife is (do you) suppose (we can) find (it)?" "Nika klap ict siawash cosho bebe," "I found a baby seal." "Kah mika klap okeoke?" "Where (did) you find that?" "Klosh nanage nika pe halo klap nika lehash," "I have looked good and cannot find my axe." (Literally: "Good look I and no find my axe.") "Nika tumtum wake mika klap mika canim," "I think not you (will) find your canoe."



A as in hat; a as in father; accent  klas  and pronounce Klass kah.

 "Klaska" covers the idea of the third person plural of English and is usually used in the sense of "they who" or to mean "their" in talking Chinook.

 Examples:  "Klaska chaco wake lalie," "They came a little while ago." "Mika wawa konaway klaska mamook kwolan," "You tell all (of) them (to) listen." "Klosh spose konaway chaco pe lolo konaway klaska ictas pe mitlite copo okeoke illahee," "Let them all come and bring all their things and stay (live) upon this land." (Literally, "Good if all come and bring all their things and live on this land.")

GO      TO GO      WENT      GONE      GOING      WILL GO.


A as in as in hat; a as in father; wa as in was; accent  klat  and pronounce Klat-ah wah, with trailing breath sound of h to end the word.

 "Klatawa" alone means "go" (the action). It is used as a command and to designate the past, present and future of the act of going. Its meaning in spoken Chinook is governed by the words used with it, by the subject talked about and by the bearing of the surroundings on the subject, speaker and hearer. It covers the whole idea of "go," "went," "gone," and "will go," "may go," "could, would or should go," "can go," "must go," "shall go," "do go," "do not go," etc. Use it anywhere to mean the same as English "go" and it will be right.

 Examples:  "Klatawa," "Go." (Get out, go away.) "Kah mika klatawa?" "Where do you go?" "Konce mesika klatawa," "When we go." "Spose mika klatawa?" "Will you go?" "Nika klatawa delate ahncuttie," "I went a-long-time-ago." "Comtox klatawa?" "Do you understand the going?" (The way.) "Konaway klatawa wake lalie," "All (everybody) going (will go) soon." "Klonas nika klatawa," "Perhaps (maybe) I (will) go." "Wake mika klatawa," "Do not go (you)," "Nowitka, nika klatawa," "Yes, I (will or can) go." "Halo nika klatawa," "I will not go."

 There is room for almost unlimited combinations with other words in Chinook where "Klatawa" can be used to mean "go" just as "mamook" means all other actions except come.

WHO      WHOSE      WHICH.


A as in hat; a as in father; accent  klax  and pronounce Klax tah.

 "Klaxtah" covers the English interrogation "Who?" and fixes relative person as "the-man-who," or ownership as "the-man-whose-dog is," etc. It may also mean "which one." The most common use of it is in some form of inquiry using the word to mean "Who?", "Who is it?", etc.

 Examples:  "Klaxtah okeoke?" "Who is that?" "Klaxtah mamook?" "Who did it?" "Klaxtah mika tilacum?" "Who is your friend?" "Klaxtah man mamook poh?" "Which (one) fired the gun (shot)?" "Klaxtah man, Chim, nah Bill?" "Which man, Jim or (perhaps) Bill?" (Literally, "Which man, Jim? No? Bill?")



I as in him (both syllables); accent  klim  and pronounce Klim min.

 "Klimin" means pulverized, finely ground, flour-like in character, etc. Now so little used as to be nearly obsolete.



I as in hit (all syllables); a as in father; accent  mm  and pronounce Kli-min-a whit.

 Formerly used to mean "a lie," "falsehood," "untruth," etc. Nowadays so little used as to be practically obsolete. "Mox wawa" (double talk) is most commonly used to indicate "lie" now and very few Chinook speakers would know the meaning of "Kliminawhit" if it were used.



O as in home; a as in hat; accent  kla , dwell slightly on nasal n and trail all three last letters n a s so that last half of the word "drags" in speaking and pronounce it Klo n n a s with a slight hissing sound to end.

"Klonas" is the Chinook symbol of "doubt," "uncertainty," possibility unknown," etc. It is almost the opposite of "Klosh" or "Delate" in its ability to cast doubt as against the ability of "Klosh" or "Delate" to affirm and add certainty to a subject.

 "Klonas" is always used as a prefix word to cast doubt on the subject under discussion and always implies uncertainty on the part of the speaker or asks the question "Do you know?" "Are you sure?" etc., of the listener. In speaking Chinook always use "Klonas" to mean doubt or uncertainty under any circumstances and it will be right.

 Examples:  "Klonas nika chaco," "Perhaps I (will) come." "Klonas halo," "I think not (but I do not know)." "Klonas mika nanage nika kowmux?" "Have you seen (perhaps you have seen) my dog?"

 When spoken, "Klo o o n n n a a a s," with a heavy shrug of the shoulders, it means "Who knows?" exactly as the Spanish "Quien sabe?" expresses the same idea. "Klonas nowitka," "Perhaps    I think probably, but am not certain." "Klonas cultas okeoke," "Maybe it is bad." "Klonas klosh okeoke," "Maybe it is good," etc. The combination of words is almost unlimited so that "Klonas" introduces the element of doubt. "Klonas nika comtox klaxtah okeoke man," "Perhaps (possibly) I understand (who) that man (is)." (I am not certain about it    I have doubts.) "Halo klonas," "No doubt."



Kl together; oo as in coo; tch together; a as in man; accent  klootch  and pronounce Kloo-tsch-man.

 The whole meaning of the word is "woman" when used alone and yet it always fixes female sex in any case where it is used as a prefix word.

 Examples:  "Yahka nika klootchman," "(She) is my woman (wife)." "Okeoke nika tenas klootchman," "That is my little girl." "Yowah nika klootchman kuitan," "There is my mare (female horse)."

 Relationship on the motherís side is fixed by indicating the wife as "klootchman" or "nika klootchman" (my woman) and then adding "her sister," "her mother," "her brother," etc., thus: "Nika klootchman, yahka ow," "My woman, her brother" (thus, "my brother-in-law"). This construction is strictly Indian and is used many times in many ways by Indians in talking Chinook    a great deal more so than among whites because it is the natural way of speech with Indians and it is the really correct usage in Chinook. Thus: "Nika klootchman, yahka oleman papa," translates into English as "My woman, her older father," and fixes the relationship to be my wifeís grandfather." Leave out "oleman" and use the same sentence and it fixes the meaning as "my wifeís father."



 The common and most frequent meaning of "Klosh" is "good," "all right," "satisfactory," "acceptable," "well enough," "good as it is," etc. It covers the whole idea of good, right and satisfactory value and expresses all the various shaded meanings that are near or have to do with the same general idea. It is one of the most flexible and wide reaching words in Chinook and is used very frequently to convey largely separated meanings by using with it a great variety of other word combinations that modify, lessen or add to its individual meaning.

 Primarily it can be said to be the symbol word that stands for everything and anything that is good, right or satisfactory, but it can be used to mean over 45 different shaded meanings that have to do with or bear on its individual meaning. It becomes a negative force just as flexible when "no" or "not" is used to prefix it, therefore, its uses in conversation are almost unlimited and it soon "places itself" automatically when one begins to speak Chinook.

 Examples:  "Okeoke klosh," "That (is) good." "Yahka man nika klosh tilacum." "That man (he is) my very good friend." "Klosh canim okeoke," "A good canoe that (is)." "Klosh muckamuck," "Good eating" (or "Good to eat"). "Klosh tumtum nika copo mika," "I think well of you" (or "My heart is good toward you"). "Klosh kahkwa" "It is good that way" (or "Good like-that (it is).") "Klosh mika chaco," "Good you come." ("It would be well for you to come.") "Klosh nanage!" "Look out!" (Literally: "Good look"    "Look well!"    "Be careful!" etc.) "Yahka delate klosh," "That is very fine." "Klosh esick," "A good paddle." "Nika klosh bebe," "My beautiful baby." "Klosh spose mika iskum," "It would be well to get (that)." ("Good if you get (it).") "Mika mamook klosh wawa," "You made a good talk." "Klosh klootchman okeoke," "(A) good woman that (one)."

 "Klosh-spose" is the word "klosh" combined with "spose" (a corruption of the English "suppose") and this form of "klosh" is used to suggest something to be done or to inquire if you approve of some suggested idea, thus: "Klosh-spose nika iskum okeoke pish," "(I think it would be) good (or well) if I get (some or that) fish," (and, by implied meaning, "Do you agree?"). "Klosh-spose nika mamook heehee copo mika bebe." The idea conveyed here would be equivalent to the English, "I think I had better play with your baby, donít you?" What is actually said    word for word    is this: "Good-if-I make play with you baby." There is much in such word arrangement that is left unsaid, yet the idea is expressed clearly to the understanding of those who speak Chinook well because a large majority of Chinook sentences are put together on just such graphic lines    the implied meaning in many cases being as much or even more than the meaning conveyed by the words actually spoken.



I as in his (both syllables); accent  klis  and pronounce Klis kwis.

 Siawash name for the mats they weave from leaves of the "cattail" and use as a mattress. Of little use in Chinook except when trading for or buying these mats. Never used in ordinary Chinook conversation otherwise.



O as in home; pronounce as written.

 "Klone," the numeral "three." Used in Chinook exactly as "three" is used in English.

 Examples:  "Klone man chaco," "Three men came." "Nika tika klone kuitan," "I want three horses."



 Pronounce same as English spelling.

 "Kly" is the term used to mean "cry," "mourn," "weep," etc., in Chinook. It covers the whole idea of mourning or distress. Not very much used. It is a corruption of English "cry."

 Examples:  "Nika bebe delate cly, yahka sick tumtum," "My baby cries a great deal, (he) it is sick." "Yahka klootchman delate cly, yahka man chaco memaloose," "She (that) woman, cries (mourns) he (her) husband comes dead."



O has almost the sound of long u or as  au  in caulk, yet not quite as broad as  aw  in English; u is short as in mutt; accent  kok  and pronounce Kauk-shut.

 The word alone means usually "all broken up." Its exact meaning depends, though, on how, when and under what conditions it is used. It can mean "I am sick," "I feel badly," "My family is disorganized," or any similar meaning as well as to mean that "I was badly hurt," "My canoe was shattered," "He lost all his belongings through wreck," or any like idea. It is a flexible word covering the idea of disorganization, wreck, breakage, etc., and is used wherever this idea is to be conveyed. Nearly always the word "chaco" (comes) is used as a prefix meaning that a thing "comes" or "has come" (that is, gotten into) a disorganized state, wrecked, etc., or it "will come" so.

 Examples:  "Nika delate kokshut," "I (am feeling) very badly (sick)." "Nika canim chaco kokshut," "My canoe (has) become a wreck." "Hyas kokshut yahka man (or okeoke man," "That man was badly hurt." "Konaway nika tilacum chaco kokshut," "All my friends come scattered." (Full meaning: "All  my  organization  of  friends  and  acquaintances have become  disorganized    scattered to other places," etc.)



O as in on; a as in fate; a as in fate; accent  kon  and pronounce Kon-a-way.

 "Konaway" alone means "all" and covers the idea of "entirely," "finished," "no more," "total," etc. Its exact meaning in any sentence depends on the words spoken with it and the influence of situation, surroundings and subject on the spoken words. It is safe to use it to cover any of the above outlined ideas taken from any angle. "Wake" and "Halo" used as prefix words, make it mean "not all," "none," etc.

 Examples:  "Konaway," "All." "Copo konaway," "All together." (The whole company, the entire lot.) "Konaway man nanage," "All men see." "Mesika klatawa copo konaway sun," "We went (traveled) all day long." "Halo nika iskum konaway," "I (did) not get all (of the object)." "Konaway pish chaco kokshut," "All (of the) fish spoiled (became no good)." "Halo konaway ictas mika lolo," "Not all (of the) things (must) you carry." ("You must not carry all of the load     everything," etc.) "Wake konaway mesika chaco enati," "Do-not all-of-you come-across." "Spose mika tika konaway," "Do you want all (of it or all of these things?)."



O as in on; ee together, sounded as see; accent  kon  and pronounce Kohn seh, with  kon  accented and ee so shortened and low spoken that it sounds almost like seh, but not quite    make it about halfway between "see" and "seh" of English and it will be correct.

 "Konce" in Chinook is the equal of the English interrogation "How?" and of the time interrogation "When?" and is always used as a prefix word to give other words the question value as above. It is never used to mean "where" (Kah) but always to cover ideas dealing with "How?" or "When?" It also fixes "when" as a time element in the sense of "the-time-when" something occurred, etc. It is never used in any other way but to express one of the above three meanings, and its exact meaning is always brought out by the way it as used with the other words.

 Examples:  "Konce chickamun?" "How much money?" "Konce siah?" "How far (is it)?" "Konce nika klatawa?" "When (do) I go?" "Konce okeoke?" "How (is) that?" "Konce mika chaco?" "When (will) you come?" "Konce nika nanage Chim nika wawa," "When I see Jim I (will) tell (him)." "Konce kowmux nika iskum?" "How many dogs have you (got)?"



Pronounce same as English "cow."

 "Kow" means "to tie," "fasten," "make fast," etc. "Mamook" is used as a prefix word to mean "make tied" (tie it). "Wake" or "Halo" used as prefix words makes the negative meaning of "not" or "no-tie." "Mahsh" used as a prefix means to "untie," "loosen," etc.

 Examples:  "Mamook kow nika lacasset," "Make tie up my trunk." "Yahka kow, nah?" "Is it tied?" "Klosh kow kahkwa okeoke," "It is well tied that way." "Halo mika kow okeoke," "Do not (you) tie that." "Wake nika tumtum mika mamook kow mika kuitan," "Not I think you make tied your horse." "Wake kow    mahsh!" "Donít tie it    untie it!" "Mahsh yahka kow copo rope copo kowmux," "Untie the rope that fastens the dog,"



Ow as in how; u as in up; accent  kow  and pronounce Kow mux.

 Indian name for dog, used as any other name word is used in Chinook. Has no other meaning except when used with other words such as "Kahkwa" (like) then it gives the understanding of "doglike" (Kahkwa kowmux), which conveys the idea of "low," "dirty," etc.

 Examples:  "Okeoke nika kowmux," "That (is) my dog." "Nika iskum mox hyas kowmux copo Chim," "I got two big dogs from Jim." "Okeoke man yahka cultas kahkwa kowmux," "That man, he is low (bad) like-a-dog."



U as in use; i as in hit; a as in hand; accent  ku  and pronounce Ku i tan, giving the first syllable  ku  almost the same sound as the English letter "Q" which makes the word when spoken sound as though written "Q wit tan" which is as near as the English will render it.

 "Kuitan" is the Chinook name for "horse," any horse. It is of frequent use and can be used in any way that English "horse" is commonly used.

 Examples:  "Iskum kuitan pe mamook ictas copo chick-chick," "Get (the) horses and put (the) things in (the) wagon." "Nika iskum klosh cooley kuitan," "I have a good race horse." "Konaway nika kuitan klatawa, halo nika klap," "All my horses (are) gone. I canít find (them)." "Wake chaco copo kuitan, chaco copo canim," "Do not come with horses, come with canoes."



 "Kull" is the Chinook word-symbol covering the idea of "solid," "dense," "hard," "tough," etc. It is also used to mean not easy," but more often it means "hard" in the sense of being solid.

 Examples:  "Hyas hull okeoke stone," "That stone is very hard." (Very hard that stone (is). "Kull okeoke illahee, wake nika mamook," "Hard that ground (is) not I (can) work (it)." The word is good Chinook but is not used to any great extent.



U as in hull; a as in ran (both syllables); accent  kull  and pronounce Kull-la gan.

 The word means "fence," but is so seldom used as to be practically obsolete.



U as in up; a as in father: accent first and fourth syllables, and pronounce Kul-la-kul lah.

 The Chinook symbol word for "bird," any bird. The full meaning is bought out by prefix words describing the kind of a bird and the word is used following other words to give the meaning of "birdlike."

 Examples:  "Okeoke klale chuck kullakulla," "That (is) a black water-bird." "Hyas tíkope kullakulla," "A large white bird." "Kullakulla muckamuck stick," "Woodpecker" (the-bird-that-eats-wood). "Delate klosh muckamuck kullakulla," "A fine bird to eat." (Very good-to-eat bird.) "Siah lepee kullakulla mitlite copo chuck illahee," "A long legged bird that-lives-in the water-land (swamps)." (The crane, snipe or heron.)



U as in up; a as in father; o as in ox; accent  kun  and pronounce Kun-a mox.

 "Kunamox" is usually used to mean "both" or "together with," but is flexible enough to cover the whole idea of "joined" or "united" as understood in English.

 Examples:  "Nesika chaco kunamox tomalla," "Both of you come together tomorrow." "Halo chaco kunamox," "Do not come together." "Yahka kuitan mamook klosh spose kunamox," "Those (the) horses work good (if) they (are) together." "Klosh kahkwah, mamook kunamox," "(It is) good that way (like that), put them together." (Literally: "Good the-same-as, work-together.")



 A corruption of English "Quarter," pronounced as nearly English as the Indian can get the sounds. Used mostly to mean a quarter of a dollar (ict kwahtah) in connection with money matters, where it is used just as the English "quarter" is used. Not so much used in speaking, however, as "Mox bit" (Two bits) is used, to mean "a quarter," or 25 cents. Both phrases, "Ict kwahtah" and "Mox bit" are right, both are partly English, partly Chinook, but custom makes "Mox bit" the most common expression simply because "two bits" is the usual English for "a quarter" in the country where Chinook is spoken.



 "Kwaist" is the correct Chinook for the numeral "nine" but it is not used in actual conversation as much as some figure-combination like "six and three" (tokum pe klone) or "five and four" (kwinum pe lokut) to mean "nine." It is the only numeral designated thus in Chinook and for no apparent reason either. One says "five and four" for "nine" (kwaist) in Chinook but he says "tatlum" always for "ten" and never "twice five." Why this should be is a mystery. "Kwaist" should by all means be used to mean "nine" and used the same as any other of the figure-names in Chinook. (See "Counting in Chinook.")

GLAD      JOY.


A as in father; accent  a  and pronounce Kwah n n with nasal n sound slightly prolonged to end the word.

 "Kwan" means "glad," "gladness," "joy," etc. It covers the Indian idea, "my heart is good" or "glad-towards-you," "glad-for-you," etc. Used as English "glad" to cover same meanings in speaking Chinook.

 Examples:  "Nika kwan spose mika chaco," "I (will be) glad if you come." "Hiyu kwan nika," "Much glad me." "Spose lolo okeoke tízum sail copo mika klootchman yahka chaco delate kwan nika tumtum," "If you carry that calico to your woman she will be glad I think." (Literally: "If (you) carry that spotted-with-color-cloth to your woman she comes very glad I think.")



A as in father; accent  a  and pronounce Kwass (as though spelled Qu wass s s).

 "Kwass" means "afraid of," "timid," "fear," etc., and is used like English "afraid."

 Examples:  "Kwass nika spose klatawa copo chuck," "Afraid I (am) if (we) go on the water." "Klatawa! Nika kuitan hiyu kwass pe halo klatawa copo, halo wawa hiyu," "Go away! My horse (is) much afraid and will not go by (you), (keep still, do) not talk loud (or shout), etc."



I as in win; u as in up; accent  kwin  and pronounce Kwin um.

 "Kwinum" is the Chinook word for the numeral "five" and has no other meaning. Used the same as English "five" is used to indicate that number in any situation.

 Examples:  "Nika potlatch kwinum dollah copo John," "I gave five dollars to John." "Kwinum kuitan nika tika," "Five horses I want."

EAR      HEAR.


O as in oat; a as in man; accent  kwo  and pronounce Kwo lan.

 "Kwolan" means the "ear" or "hearing," "to hear," etc. It covers the whole idea of "hearing" or "the ear" from any angle, and is used in Chinook as "ear" or "hear" is used in English.

 Examples:  "Sick nika kwolan, klosh spose chaco ladoctin," "Sick my ear (is) good suppose comes (the) doctor." "Klosh kwolan!" "Listen!" "Siah kwolan-kuitan," "A mule (long-eared horse)."



O as in own; e as in see; u as in sum; accent  ne  and pronounce Kwo-nee-sum.

 "Kwonesum" is the word symbol of "always" or "everlasting" in Chinook and covers the whole idea of "continual," "without stopping," etc. It is always used as a prefix word to fix the idea of perpetuation, continuance, keeping at it, never stopping, etc.

 Examples:  "Kwonesum chaco okeoke chuck," "Always comes that water (keeps-on-coming)." "Nowitka, kwonesum kahkwa," "Yes, (it is) always like that (that way)." "Kwonesum sahale tyee," "(The) always up above chief" (God). "Kwonesum nika klatawa pe klatawa." "Always you go and go." "Kwonesum nika tika okeoke," "Always I want that (have wanted that)." "Kwonesum halo muckamuck," "Always not-eat (that)." (Never eat that    it is not to be eaten.) "Kwonesum nika halo nanage." (Literally: "Always I no see." (I have never seen (it).)



A as in father; oo as in coo; accent  la  and pronounce Lah-booce.

 The mouth    a river mouth. French word incorporated into Chinook and almost obsolete at this time.



A as in father; a as in hat; e as in bet; accent  la  and pronounce Lah-cass-set.

 From the French. In common use to mean a trunk, a handbag, chest or box of any kind. Also sometimes used to mean a basket or a package or bundle. The common use is to designate a box or a trunk.

 Examples:  "Lolo okeoke lacasset copo mika house," "Carry that trunk to your house." "Nika klootchman mitlite konaway klosh ictas copo skookum lacasset," "My wife (woman) keeps all her fine things in a strong box."



A as in father; oo as in coo; accent  la  and pronounce Lahgoom.

 French word incorporated into Chinook and means "pitch" from fir or pine trees, or "glue" in liquid form. Little used except in combination with "stick" (Lagoom-stick) to mean "Pitchwood," i.e., slivers of pitchy fir used to start fire with. Outside of this use it is scarcely ever heard any more.

 Example:  "Iskum lagoom-stick pe mamook piah hyak," "Get some pitchwood and make a fire quick."



A as in father; a as in hat; accent  la  and pronounce Lah-hasch.

 French word used in Chinook to mean either axe or hatchet. In common use but mostly for "hatchet" as English "axe" is being used to displace it in this meaning.

 Examples:  "Lolo nika lahash," "Bring me (the) axe." "Klosh spose iskum tenas lahash," "Good if (you) get (the) little-axe." (Idea: "The hatchet would answer the purpose better.")


(Uva ursi.)


A as in father; pronounce Larb with L sound detached as in French usage.

 From the French Líherbe. This is the name given by the French Canadians to the plant known as Uva ursi    bear berry    the leaves of which are dried and smoked, mixed with tobacco or by themselves. The Blackfoot Indian name for it is "Kahksin," which means "Brittle-made" because it breaks easily when dried. The Sioux Indians call it "Waupachalie Chashasha" (Tea tobacco). The West Coast Indians (Seattle neighborhood) call it "Chultísh" (exact translation unknown). These leaves are smoked universally by savage tribes clear around the world north of the latitude of St. Louis. The common interchangeable Indian name is "Killikinick" or "Kinnikinick." The chopped up inner (green) bark of the red willow, dried and mixed with tobacco is also "Killikinick" and an Indian of the plains country east of the Rockies is apt to have this to smoke, while the mountain or West Coast Indian is nearly sure to use the leaves of the Uva ursi. "Líahb" in Chinook always means the latter and "Killikinick" means the mixed Uva ursi and tobacco, while tobacco alone is "Chinoos" in Chinook.



A as in lay; i as in hit; accent  la  and pronounce La ly, the last syllable being exactly the same as ly in English lily in fact, the word "lalie" is exactly like English "lily" except that for "i" in lily" substitute "a" as in "lay"    "laly."

 "Lalie" is a time measure in Chinook that is in a way interchangeable with the shortly spoken "Ahncuttie" to mean "lately," "time past recently," etc. "Lalie," however, does not have the same long-time value that "Ahncuttie" does in usual use though it can be "stretched" to even the same extent that "Ahncuttie" can. In ordinary common use "Lalie" is understood to be "not long" more than anything else, in other words, it can be considered as the short-time symbol word and should be so used.

 Examples:  "Wake lalie nika chaco," "Not long (in a little while) I (will) come." "Elip lalie yahka mitlite yowah," "A little while before (that) lie lived here." "Konce lalie mika mitlite okeoke illahee?" "How long has this been your home?" (Literally: "How-long you live-this-ground?") "Mesika klatawa tenas wake lalie," "They went (away) just a little-while ago." ("They go (away) little not-long-(ago).")



A as in father (both syllables); accent  mah  and pronounce Lah-mah.

 From the French. Used in Chinook to mean "hand" primarily, but usage has extended the meaning to include all "the-fingers-on-the-hand" and even to include the "arm-of-the-hand."

 Examples:  "Nika lamah chaco cole," "My hands are cold." "Konaway nika lamah kahkwa stick," "All my fingers are (stiff) like sticks." "Yahka man lolo yahka lamah copo sail,". "He (that man) carries him (his) arm in (a) cloth (sling)."



 French "La medicine" incorporated into the Chinook to mean any drug, mixture, medicine or treatment for healing or curing sickness of any kind directly by application. About the English understanding of "drugs and medicines" and "treatment for sickness" combined. It does not, however, mean any of the magic or supernatural incantations or ceremonies of Indian origin and practice, including even those for healing the sick. These are all some form of "Tahmahnawis" and are never alluded to as "Medicine." "Medicine" (Lamessin) always means drugs, mixtures or medicines proper used directly as our medicines are used. (See "Tahmahnawis.") Use as English "Medicine" is used in speaking.



A as in lay; o as in how: tín as tending in nasal n; accent  mount  and pronounce Lay-mount n n, shortening t and dwelling on sound.

 "Lamountín" is the word symbol for high or higher ground, a hill, a mountain, mountain chain, etc. As spoken it fixes place in a sentence and qualifies it by giving height, raising the land above the level. "Tenas" used as a prefix word makes it "little-high" and "Hyas" or "Hiyu" adds to the height.

 Examples:  "Okeoke lamountín," "That mountain (those mountains)." "Hyas lamountín okeoke," "A big (or high) mountain that (is)." (Usually used to mean a snow covered peak, etc.) Other qualifying words are also used to designate which mountain, what kind of a mountain, or any other descriptive element that time, place and their bearing on the subject and speakers may demand to make the meaning clear.



A as in father; ee as in sheep; accent  peep  and pronounce Lah peep.

 This word is French "La pipe" incorporated into Chinook and general Chinook usage has shortened it to "Peep" so that now a pipe is nearly always spoken of as "Peep" (and not "Lapeep.")

 Examples:  (Common use.) "Nika tika chinoos copo nika peep," "I want some tobacco for my pipe."



A as in father; a as in fate; accent  tait  and pronounce Lah-tate.

 From the French "La tete," "the head." Chinook usage retains the French meaning and the word is used as English "head" is used.

 Examples:  "Latait copo chuck." "Head of the river." "Iskum chappoh copo mika latait," "Get a hat for your head." (Put on your hat.)



A as in father; a as in hat; accent  plash  and pronounce Lah-plash.

 The French word "La planche" incorporated into Chinook and still used to mean any timber sawed into boards. Used in all ways as English "lumber," "boards," "plank," etc., is used. Using "Tenas" as a prefix word makes it "small," as "Tenas laplash," "Small (or thin) boards." "Hyas" makes it large, thus: "Hyas laplash," "Large boards," i.e., "heavy lumber," not squared into "sticks"    really heavy planking. Shingles are "little boards for the top (of the house)." (Tenas laplash copo sahale house.) "Skookum laplash," "Good, strong boards." "Mahsh laplash," "Throw-away lumber," (or really "waste lumber," slabs, etc.).



A as in father; o as in oat; accent  pote  and pronounce Lah-pote.

 The French "La porte" incorporated into Chinook and used to mean "door," "doorway," "opening," etc. Means about the same as English "door."

 Examples:  "Mamook klah okeoke lapote," "Make clear that door." "Ikpooie lapote," "Shut the door." "Chaco copo lapote," "Come in by the door."



E as in eat; oo as in coo; o as in go; accent  moo  and pronounce "Lee-moo-toh."

 Originally from the French. Used in Chinook to mean "Sheep" but now almost obsolete.

FOOT      FEET      FOOT TRACK      LEG      PAW      WALK ON FOOT.


E as in let; ee as in seed; accent  pee  and pronounce Leh pee.

 This word is a corruption of the French "Le pied." Usually it is used to mean "the foot" of a man or an animal or "the-track-made-by-the-foot" of man or animal. It is, however, used to mean "the feet" of man, animal or a group of men or animals. By implied meaning (depending on words used with it and gesture to determine place) it also is understood to mean "foot-and-leg" or even "leg" or "legs" as the case may demand. Its common use, however, makes it usually mean either "foot" or "track."

 Examples:  "Okeoke lepee copo mowitch," "That is a deer track." "Hiyu sick chaco nika leepee," "Very sore comes my foot," (My foot is very sore.) "Wake chaco copo canim, chaco copo lepee," "Do not come in (your) canoe, come on foot (walk)."



E as in lee; oo as in coo; accent  pool  and pronounce Lee-pool.

 Originally from the French. Used in Chinook to mean "Grouse" primarily, but also with "Bosín" as prefix to mean "Chicken," thus: "Lepool," "Grouse." "Bosín lepool," "White-man grouse (chicken)."

 Examples:  "Nika mamook poo lokut lepool," "I shot four grouse." "Nika mahkook tatlum Bosín lepool copo nika klootchman," "I bought ten chickens for my wife."



 Original French "Le sac." Used in Chinook to mean "bag," "sack," "pocket," "basin" (in the hills as at the head of a stream, or to mean a small, pocket-like bay in a lake). Not much used in any of its meanings any more, even by good Chinook speakers.



 Corrupted English "River" with English "R" changed to Indian "L" sound and English "V" to Indian "B."

 Very little used in Chinook and then really only as "broken English." "Skookum chuck" is more often used to mean "River" in Chinook.



 Corrupted English word "Rice" with "R" of English changed to Indian "L" sound. Use same as English "Rice."



 Pronounce as written.

 Chinook word meaning "boil," "boiling," "to boil," etc. Very little used any more. Used same as English words above.



O as in oat; u as in hull; o as in hope; accent  hull  and pronounce Loh-hull-lowh.

 Chinook word for "round-like-a-ball" but now so nearly obsolete that few Chinook speakers ever use it at all.



O as in go; u as in up; accent  lo  and pronounce Loh-kut.

 "Lokut" is Chinook for the numeral "four" and means this and nothing else. Higher numbers, 24, 34, 44, etc., are made by combinations of "two-times-ten and four" (Mox tatlum pe lokut). "Three-times-ten and four" (Klone tatlum pe lokut). "Four-times-ten and four" (Lokut tatlum pe lokut, and so on.) "Lokut" however, always means "four" and no more.



O as in low, both syllables; accent first  lo  and pronounce Loh loh, giving a slight breath sound of h at end of each syllable.

 "Lolo" means to carry anything, to "take it there," "bring it here," "bring it along," etc. It is commonly used to cover the act of carrying loads by hand for short distances but it is flexible enough so that it can be used to mean the act-of-carrying anything anywhere, either by hand, pack horse, machinery or other agency.

 Examples:  "Lolo okeoke copo nika," "Bring that to me." "Lolo mika ictas copo nika canim," "Carry your things to my canoe. "Mesika lolo ictas copo kuitan," "We (will) pack (or carry) the things on a horse." "Lolo hyas stick sahale copo piah chickchick," "Raise the big timber with the engine." (Literally: "Carry big timber up with the-thing-with-wheels-that-runs-by-fire.")



 English "Rope" with "R" changed to Indian "L."

 Used in Chinook to mean a rope of any kind or size. Any kind of a string or cord, thong or like article used as string or cord is "Tenas lope" (little rope). Any rope is "lope" and a "big rope" (hawser or cable) is "Hyas lope." Wire is "Chickamun lope" (metal string or rope) and a chain is "Skookum chickamun lope" (strong metal (iron) rope.) "Lope" covers the whole idea of a flexible rope, cord, thong, chain, wire, etc., used to tie anything with or to fasten anything with or to put to any use that rope, cord, etc., is used for.



 English "Rum" with Indian "L" sound.

 Not much used any more, nearly all liquor now being called "fire water" (Piah chuck) or in late years "Hootch" or "Hootchinoo" (an Alaska word added to Chinook since the Klondike days).



U as in up; i as in it; accent  lum  and pronounce Lum my.

 This word is used in Chinook mostly in the northern part of Puget Sound and the islands to the north to mean "old woman." It is not in general use all over the territory where Chinook is spoken and can be classed as a local Chinook word. "Ole klootchman" means the same thins in general use where Chinook is spoken.



A as in father; oo as in look; accent  kook  and pronounce Mah kook.

 "Mahkook" primarily means "to trade" but the word is very flexible and is made to cover the whole idea of trading, exchanging, buying, selling, bargaining and carrying on all acts that have to do with trade matters or articles or places-of-trade. The word covers about the English idea of "market" if you add to "market" the ideas of "market goods," "market place," "marketing" and everything else you can think of pertaining to or associated with the "market." To bring out the full meaning such other prefix or following words as may be necessary are used with "mahkook" so that the idea of "trade" is associated with the other subject in hand.

 Examples:  "Mika mahkook nika canim?" "(Will) you sell your canoe?" "Konce chickamun spose nika mahkook?" "How much money (do you want) if I buy it?" "Wake mika tika mamook," "I do not want to sell." "Kah yahka mahkook house?" "Where is the store?" (Literally: "Where is the place  where  they  buy  and  sell  things  house?") "Nika mahkook kuitan?" "(Will) you trade horses?"



A as in father; i as in willie; accent  mah  and pronounce Mah leyh.

 Corruption of English "Marry." Pronounce it "Mahley h" with a slight h breath sound at end, really Indian-English "marry." Means the same as English "marry," "married," "will marry," "may marry," "did marry" or any like idea. The whole idea of matrimony is covered by the word, using prefix or follow up words to bring out the exact meaning.

 Examples:  "Wake lalie nika chaco mahleh," "Not long I come married" (will marry before long)." "Spose mesika chaco mahleh," "Suppose we come (become) married," "Yahka nika mahleh ow," "He (that man) is my married brother." "Nika tika mika tenas klootchman chaco mahleh," "I want your daughter (to) (be)come married." (I want to marry your daughter.) "Konce lalie mika chaco mahleh?" "How long have you come (been) married?"



A as in father; sound last syllable with slurred, hissing sound more as if it were  sch ; this sound is almost the slightly prolonged "sh h h!" frequently used by mothers to quiet babies, yet it is a slightly shorter sound than that; accent  mah  and pronounce Mah-sch-h.

 Alone the word means "throw away" or "put it away from you forcibly." It has also the broader meaning of "to get rid of," "go away from," "destroy," "part with," "to intentionally lose," or any like idea when used with other words and the use of the word "mamook" as a prefix enforces the idea or makes a command as (example) "Mamook mahsh okeoke." Literally: "(You) make throw-that-away," which translates into English as "Throw it away!" "Get rid of it!" "Drop it!" or any similar idea depending on the situation. "Nika mahsh okeoke," "I threw it away    I got rid of it    I will throw it away or get rid of it." "Nika mahsh okeoke man," "I lost that man (intentionally)" or "I sent that man away." It is a flexible word capable of covering the whole idea of "to put away from you" or "get away from me," but its usual use is to cover "throw away," "get rid of," etc.



A as in father; i as in fin (both syllables); accent  maht  and pronounce Maht-lin ny.

 Means "Away-from-the-land," "seaward," "off shore," etc. Not much used except along the sea coast and then mostly to designate place thus: "Kah mika mamook pish?" "Where will you fish?" "Mahtlinnie," "Off shore" (out in deep water, away from land). It is the opposite of "Mahtwillie," ("inshore") and is so used.



A as in father; i as in willie; accent  mah  and pronounce Maht-will ly.

 Means "In-toward-the-land," "alongshore," "near the coast," etc. Used mostly along the coast to designate position thus: "Kah mika mamook pish?" "Where will you fish?" "Mahtwillie," "Inshore" (near the land in shallow water). Opposite of the word, "Mahtlinnie," ("off shore") and is so used.



 The English word used as Chinook and means "Mother" the same as English    used the same way.

DO      TO DO      WILL DO      HAVE DONE.


A as in man, oo as in coo; accent  mam  and pronounce Mam-mook.

 This is the one great ACTION word of Chinook. In fact, any act, anything you do, except go or come, is always "mamook" in Chinook. It signifies motion or action past action or future action or anything involving action. Any work, deed, exercise, motion, operation, service, performance or other thing having motion or action as a part of or connected in any way with it is always identified by the word "mamook" used in such a way that the action in connection with the thing, place, time, subject or object is clearly brought out. All questions concerning all actions use "mamook" to identify the action and all answers, statements or assertions concerning or dealing with any action always use "mamook" to identify the motion or act of action, and this idea is never changed or deviated from. If you row a boat, shoot a deer, run a race, pay a debt, look at things, sing, mourn, ride, eat, sheep, swim, travel, or do any other thing requiring motion or action, you must, in telling of or talking about or ordering it done, always use the word "mamook" in the sentence. Just how and where you use it depends on the sentence and the time and object, but it should be used to take the place of "may," "can," or "must," "could," "would," or "should," "will" or "shall," "am," "am not," "may," "can," "must," "could," "would," "should," "will" or "shall not DO" this, that or the other thing now or at some future time, or when you have done or did do anything in the past. I, you or they also "mamook" as above whenever they DO, will do or have done anything where motion has anything to do with it. Just remember it means MOTION or ACTION of any kind and that it is the only word covering the whole idea of action and motion (except the two actions    "go" and "come"    which each are covered by their own words, "klatawa" and "chaco") and then use "mamook" to signify the action and you have its place in Chinook. It is even very frequently used as a prefix for "chaco" (come) and for "klatawa" (go) in which case it compels action for it means "make come" or "make go." So it can be used as the one and only ACTION word in Chinook.

 Examples:  "Nika mamook," "I work." "Okeoke man mamook memaloose ict mowitch," "That man killed one deer." "Mamook canim," "Paddle the canoe." "Konce mamook stick?" "When (do you) cut wood?" "Okeoke illahee halo mamook klatawa," "That ground never moves (or will not move)." "Halo mamook," "No movement    it does not move"    ("not moving    not working    will not work," etc.) "Klosh mamook okeoke," "Good work that." "Alki mamook," "(Will) work (move or do) by and bye."

 Almost any combination of words can be used so that "mamook" denotes the action and the idea will be correct as far as expression is concerned, though the beginner may in speaking get the word "mamook" placed wrong in a sentence, yet the hearer would instantly recognize the idea of motion no matter how the word was placed and would be able to properly associate the motion idea with the subject in his own mind and thus understand what was meant.



 Same as English.

 "Man" is used in Chinook to fix male sex in anything. It is used to mean "man" as it is in English and also as a prefix word to fix male sex in any object under discussion.

 Examples:  "Okeoke nika man," "That (is) my husband" (man). "Ict man," "A man (one man)." "Kahkwa man," "Like a man." "Cultas man," "A bad man (worthless man)." "Skookum man," "A big strong man." "Yahka man-kuitan," "(He) a male horse." "Hyas ole-man," "Very old" or "Very-old-man-like." "Tatlum man chaco," "Ten men came."



E as in men; a as in father; oo as in coo; accent  mem  and pronounce Mem-a-loo ss, ending with a slight, short, hissing sound.

 This word taken alone means "dead," but is used with combinations of other words to mean "destroyed," "wiped out," "done away with," "to rot," "decay," "die," etc. In short, it covers the whole idea of death and destruction of a final, finished, ended character. In use the word "chaco" (come) is nearly always used with it as a prefix    that is, a thing is not just "dead" but "comes dead" and when he "dies" he also "comes dead." When the word "memaloose" is used with "mamook" as a prefix, it means "make" or "made" dead     that is, killed, destroyed, etc.

 Examples:  "Nika ow chaco memaloose," "My brother comes dead," (literally, "dies"). "Yahka man mamook memaloose nika ow," "He (that) man made dead (killed) my brother." "Ahncuttie man konaway memaloose," "Old-time people all (are) dead."



E as in me; a as in ah; e as in me; accent  sah  and pronounce Mee-sah-tíchee, with slight, cut-off sound of t before c in last syllable, as indicated.

 "Mesahche" is used in Chinook to indicate anything worse than "Cultas" (bad). It conveys the idea of dirty vileness, vice, rottenness, etc. It is probably more often used to describe things as being obscene, depraved, etc., than in any other sense, though it covers the whole catalogue of things or conditions that are "worse than the worst," "rotten to the core," and all like ideas where the term "bad" does not reach far enough. It also means dangerous or "danger-from" vile things. The words used before or after it qualify its meaning or it is used to couple the vile meaning with the ordinary meaning of any other word.

 Examples:  "Delate mesahche man," "A very wicked man." (Wickedness understood to mean "the limit of human depravity" from all angles.) "Mesahche klootchman," "A harlot." "Piah chuck, yahka delate mesahche, mamook mika pelton," "Firewater (that is) very dangerous, it makes you crazy." "Wake mika tika    delate mesahche," "Not you want; very rotten (vile, wicked, etc.) (that is)." (Idea: Keep away! Do not touch that! It is rotten, harmful, dangerous.)



E as in me; i as in ice; a as in father; accent  si  and pronounce Mee-sye-kah.

 "Mesika" is the Chinook for "your," "yours," plural of "you" (you two). It is usually used to denote ownership in things, goods, chattels, etc. In another sense it means a collective group of people, or crowd, associated with "you."

 Examples:  "Okeoke mesika ictas?" "(Are) those things yours?" "Kah mesika klatawa?" "Where (are) you (both of you) going (together)?" "Konaway tilacum mesika, nah?" "(Are) all these people yours?" (The meaning here would be more, "Are all these your people,"    "Are they relatives,"    "Do they belong to your family,"    or, "do they belong to the same clan, clique, order or fraternity that you belong to?") It comes as near as possible to being second person plural, yet sometimes it is "stretched" to mean something more than his just as nearly every Chinook word sometimes is.

YOU      YOUR.


I as in ice; a as in father; accent  mi  and pronounce Mye kah.

 "Mika" is singular and "Mesika" is plural for "you" or "yours," yet both words are used for "your" and for "yours" while "Mika" alone is used to mean "you," "you alone." (See "Mesika.")

 "Mika" is used mostly always to mean "you" or "your" and only occasionally to mean "yours."

 Examples:  "Mika chaco copo nika house," "You come to my house." "Okeoke mika kuitan    nah?" "That (is) your horse    no?" "Nika wawa konaway yahka canim mitlite copo mika pe yahka wawa halo    spose mika?" "I said all him (these) canoes belong (to) you    and he says no    are they yours?" "Klosh kahkwa mika wawa," "(It is) good like you say." "Mika nanage nika kuitan copo mika?" "Did you see my horses with yours?"



I as in him (both syllables); accent  mm  and pronounce Mim my.

 Means down stream or "to travel downstream." So little used as to be practically obsolete.



I as in it; i as in light; accent  mit  and pronounce Mitt-light.

 Primarily "Mitlite" means "live" but is used to cover "home," "stay," "dwell" "stop at," "stationary," "fixed," "fastened to," etc. It is the symbol of the idea of "permanency" as understood in English. It means "home" in the sense of a fixed place of abode. It is also used to indicate "stop" or "stopping place" in the sense that to stop is to stay or not to move away further. To "mitlite" is to stay or stop; to remain fixed, not move, stationary, etc.

 Examples:  "Yowah kah nika mitlite." "There is where I live (my home)." "Yahka mowitch mitlite copo stick," "He (the) deer lives in the timber." "Mesika mitlite yowah mox sun," "We stayed there two days." "Mitlite!" "Stop!" "Yahka clam mitlite copo pollalie illahee copo saltchuck," "He (the) clam, lives in the sand in the salt water." "Klosh spose mitlite yowah," "Good (it will be) if (we) stop here." "Siah copo sahale copo yahka lemountín yowah ict man mitlite copo stone," "Far-away up in him (the) mountain, there one man lives in stones." (Idea: "There is the face of a man on the rocks away up in the mountains.")



I as in sit (both syllables); accent  mit  and pronounce Mit-whit.

 Means "standing-straight-up" but is so little used as to be practically obsolete.

 Example:  "Mitwhit stick," "Standing timber."



Oo as in coo; a as in father; accent  moo  and pronounce Moo lah.

 From the French, meaning "mill," any kind of a mill. So little used now as to be practically obsolete.



 Same as English, used same way, means the same. Also means one month" and is used in this sense as a measure of time.

 Examples:  "Klone moon mesika klatawa," "Three months we traveled." "Konce chaco chee moon?" "When comes (the) new moon?" "Klosh moon," "Full (or good) moon." "Ole moon," "Last quarter of the moon (old moon)." "Sitkum moon," "Half moon."



Oo as in coo; accent first "moos" and pronounce as though spelled Mooz-mooz.

 Means "cattle" or "elk," depending on how it is used. Sometimes "Lemolo" ("wild") is used as a prefix (Lemolo moos-moos) to mean "Elk" to distinguish from cattle where no gesture can fix the difference in meaning.

 Examples:  "Klatawa pe iskum moosmoos, nika tika moosmoos chuck," "Go and get the cows, I want (to) milk." "Konce chickamun nika tika copo okeoke moosmoos?" "How much money do you want for that cow?" "Siah sahale copo lamountín nika mamook-poo mox moosmoos pe lolo yowah konaway itlwillie," "Far up in (the) mountains, I shot two elk and carried (brought) here all the flesh."



Oo as in coo; u as in up; accent  moo  and pronounce Moo sum.

 Means "sleep," "to sleep," "sleeping," etc. Covers the whole idea of "slumber" as understood in English.

 Examples:  "Kah nika moosum?" "Where (shall) I sleep?" "Debate cole, halo nika moosum," "Very cold (it is) no I sleep." "Nika delate olo-moosum," "I am very sleepy." (Literally, "hungry-for-sleep" or "sleep-hungry.") "Moosum kahkwa whimstick," "Sleep like-a-log (on-the-ground)."



Ow together as in how; i as in hitch; accent  mow  and pronounce Mow-witsch.

 Means primarily "Deer" and is mostly used in this sense. Occasionally, however, it is used to mean "deer-like" in the sense that some grass-eating animal, unknown, is called "Mowitch" for want of a better name simply because it resembles a deer somewhat. This use is very infrequent and "mowitch" is almost always "deer."

 Examples:  "Mowitch muckamuck," (Either) "Deer-feed" or "Deer-to-eat" (venison). "Nanage yahka mowitch yowah?" "See him (that) deer there?" "Hiyu mowitch mesika iskum; klosh muckamuck!" "Many deer we got; good eating!" (Idea: "We killed a lot of deer, now we will have a feast.")



O as in ox; pronounce Mocks.

 "Mox" is Chinook for "two," the numeral. It never means anything else and is used just as English "two" is used to count, or denotes numbers.

 Examples:  "Mox man chaco yowah," "Two men (are) coming there. "Lolo mox lacasset lapome," "Bring two boxes (of) apples."



U as in up; a as in fate; u as in up; accent first syllable and pronounce Muck-a-muck.

 "Muckamuck" covers the whole idea of "eat," "to eat," "food," "eating," "eatables," or any and everything connected with food or eating except "hungry" which has its own word.

 Examples:  "Nika tika muckamuck," "I want (something to) eat." "Klosh muckamuck okeoke," "Good eating that (is)." "Halo muckamuck mika," "Do not (that) eat (you)." "Yahka kowmux muckamuck konaway mowitch," "He (that) dog, ate all (the) deer (meat)." "Okeoke pish delate klosh muckamuck," "That fish (is) very good (to) eat." "Konaway tilacums! Chaco copo nika house pe delate, heehee! Hiyu tanze, hiyu tísing, hiyu muckamuck ictas, pe muckamuck chuck    delate klosh heehee! Chaco konaway!" "All friends! Come to my house and have a good time! Plenty dance, plenty sing, plenty to eat and drink! Very good fun (we will have)! Come all."

HELLO      LOOK HERE!      HEY!      HOH!


A as in father; h sound held more or less; accent  ah  and pronounce as exclamation, NAH!

 "Nah!" is almost always used as an exclamation to attract attention, to call to, etc., as you would say in English, "Say!" "Over there!" "You!" etc. Nearly always it is used as "Say, friend!" ("Nah, six!" or "Nah, tilacum!") It is also frequently used as an interrogation seeking confirmation of something already said just as many West Coast people say, "You are not going    no?" ("Halo mika klatawa    nah?") or "You will come    no?" ("Mika chaco    nah?") "Nah?" in Chinook is used just the same way and thus sometimes is a negative question. Ordinarily "Halo" means "No," but "Halo" is never used in the above sense, as an interrogation.



A as in Anne; a as in age; e sound so slight as to be nearly silent; accent  nan  and pronounce Nan age.

 "Nanage" in Chinook covers the whole idea of "look," "to look," "will look," "did look," "see," "saw," "will see," "can see," "may see," "must see," etc. The words used with it, coupled with the situation, surroundings, subject, speaker and hearer all go together to fix the exact meaning. It is usually used to cover "sight" and all things connected-with-sight or vision except "eyes" (seeowist) and should be used accordingly.

 Examples:  "Klosh nanage!" "Look out! (Watch close)!" "Kah mika nanage?" "Where (did) you see (it)?" "Halo nanage," "(I have) no seen." "Wake lalie nika nanage," "I saw (it, him, etc.) not long ago." "Nanage yowah!" "Look there!" "Klosh nanage konce mika klatawa," "Look out when you go along," ("Keep close watch-out as you travel.") "Klosh nika nanage," "Good I (will) look (out for it)."



E as in them; pronounce as written.

 Corruption of English "name" and used as English "name" is used.

 Examples:  "Icta mika nem?" "What is your name?" "Yahka man nem Charlie," "He (that man) name (whose name is) Charlie." "Icta nem nika wawa?" "What name (shall I) say?"

WE      US      OURS.


E as in me; i as in ice; a as in father; accent  si  and pronounce Nee-sye kah.

 "Nesika" is the plural of "Nika" and means "we," "us," "our," "ours," "that-is-ours," "that belongs-to-us," "we-are-part-of," etc. Its exact meaning depends (like many Chinook words) on surroundings, subject, speaker, etc., but it is always clear. Sometimes the unspoken words, by inference, bring the idea out clearly.

 Examples:  "Nesika klatawa," "We go." "Okeoke nesika canim," "That (is) our canoe." "Chaco copo nesika," "Come with us." "Konaway yahka kuitan mitlite nesika," "All him (the horses) he belongs to us (all of these horses are ours)." "Nesika whale totem," "We are of (or belong to) the totem of the whale." (Literally: "We are members of the clan having the whale for its totem    therefore all blood relatives to everyone else who belongs to the same totem, which is the family crest of this one family of blood relatives.")

 NOTE.    The above is an instance of unspoken meaning for "Nesika whale totem" as a spoken sentence carries to the informed, all the above information by inference hinging on the fact spoken of, namely, "We (belong to the) whale totem" or (idea) "We are whale people," and all "whale people" have the same totem (the whale) which is the visible sign of blood relationship    thus members of the whale totem never marry other members of the same totem but always mate with members of some other totem clan    or blood-family.

     ME      MY      MINE.


I as in ice; a as in father; accent  ni  and pronounce Nye kah.

 "Nika" is the personal pronoun "I" or "me," "mine," or "my." It also means "belongs-to-me," "that-is-mine," "that-is-my," etc., depending on the words used with it. All such meanings are always by inference rather than from word combinations direct and this peculiarity runs all through Chinook. It is more noticeable in words like "nika," "mika," etc., than anywhere else though unspoken meaning clearly defined by word combination plus surroundings is present in almost every Chinook sentence and in those using the pronouns especially.

 Examples:  "Nika nanage," "I see." "Nika kowmux," "My dog." "Lolo copo nika," "Bring (it) to me." "Okeoke mitlite copo nika," "That is mine." (It stays with me.) "Konaway okeoke ictas chaco copo nika," "All those things come to me," (are my belongings). "Okeoke nika," "That (is) mine." "Okeoke nika kuitan," "That is my horse."



Nasal n; ow together; i as in it; a as in father; accent  wit  and pronounce Now-witt kah.

 The word used to denote agreement-with or confirmation of and to affirm; the common "Yes" as used in English has the same meaning and uses.

 Like all Chinook words "Nowitka" expresses many different forms of the idea of "agreement-with," "yes," etc. Prefix words change its positive meaning to one of affirmative doubt or to more positive "yes," etc.

 Examples:  "Nowitka," "Yes." "Klonas nowitka," "I think so (but am not sure)." "Delate nowitka," "Positively yes (a great-deal-yes)." "Halo nowitka," "No-yes (undecided)." "Tumtum nowitka," "I think so" or "I agree with you."

 Many shaded meanings can thus be given to nearly all Chinook words and these meanings will be clearly understood. Just how many meanings any word can have depends largely on the speaker and his knowledge of Chinook coupled with his knowledge of Indian viewpoints, plus his own ability to coin word-combination idea-symbols in actually speaking Chinook. A marvelously few words will thus convey many different meanings.


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