(K-N)

 

ROAD      TRAIL      PATH      STREET.

OIEHUT.

Oie has the sound of "oy" or "way" and yet it is not either of these but more like the Yiddish "Oie;" u as in hut; accent  oie  and pronounce Oie-hut, or perhaps slightly Wh oie-hut, it is almost impossible to put the sound into English but Oie-hut is very near it at least.

 "Oiehut" in Chinook usually means "trail" or "path," but usage and contact with whites has extended the meaning to cover also "road," "street" and even "railroad," which becomes "iron road" (chickamun oiehut) so the word now covers the idea of any open way used for vehicle or foot travel.

THAT      THIS.

OKEOKE.

O as in over in both syllables; accent last syllable and pronounce as though spelled O koh ke, with explosive, short accent on the  koh  as though you said, "O, coke!" in English.

 The word is objective and its meaning in use is usually determined by gesture pointing out the object spoken of as the word is spoken and locating it as "over there" or "here" nearby as the case may demand. Thus it means either "that" or "this" as needed.

 "Okeoke," "That thing," "This thing." This is one of the most frequently used words of Chinook and the twists and turns of meanings that are given it by different speakers are very numerous. Perhaps there is no other word in Chinook outside of "mamook" that can be used in so many ways as "okeoke" can. It implies meaning in so many ways when handled by a good Chinook speaker and therein lies its value to the jargon.

 Examples:  "Icta okeoke?" "What is that?" "Klaxtah okeoke?" "Who is that?" (Using the same words and at the same time pointing to a pile of goods makes the meaning thus: "Klaxtah okeoke?" "Whose (goods are) those?" "Okeoke kull," "That (is) hard." "Lolo okeoke copo okeoke man," "Carry this to that man." "Wake okeoke; okeoke!" "Not that; this!" (Gesture indicating articles would separate these two ideas.) "Halo mika tika okeoke," (No you want that.) "You do not want that." "Cultas okeoke," "That is bad." (Bad that.)

OLD.

OLEMAN.

 Corruption of English "Old man" means "old," "worn out," "decrepit," "useless," "discarded," "waste," etc.

 It covers the whole idea of "useless," "worn out," etc. Anything incorporating the idea of "old" can be called "oleman" in Chinook and be understood.

 Examples:  "Yahka man hiyu oleman," "He (that man) is very old." "Hiyu oleman canim," "A very old canoe." "Kwonesum kahkwa oleman," "Always like (an) old man." "Mahsh okeoke lacasset, delate oleman," "Throw away that trunk, it is worn out." "Nika oleman-papa," "My old-man-father." (Grandfather.) "Oleman house," "Old house." "Yahka oleman sail," "That is an old sail" (and by inference, "It is worn out    canít be depended on    watch it as it may go to pieces in a wind.")

BERRIES.

OLLALIE.

O as in oat; a as in hat;  lie  same sound as  ly  in lily; accent  O  and pronounce Oh-lall ly.

 "Ollalie" means any small berries or berry-like fruit. It is used more to mean small-berries than anything else. Usually the English name is used as a prefix thus "Straw-ollalies," "Salmon-ollalies," etc. Very often it is left off and a Chinook prefix descriptive word used thus: "Shot-ollalies," "Huckleberries." ("Shot-berries" or "like-shot berries.") "Pil-ollalies," "Cranberries." ("Red berries.") "Chuck copo ollalies," "Water-of-berries." (Berry juice.) "Sallal-ollalies," "Sallal-berries." "Ollalies" always means the "berries" themselves and the other words qualify this to give exact meaning.

HUNGRY.

OLO.

O as in old (both); pronounce as written, with accent on first "o" and last syllable softly spoken, Oh low.

 "Olo" means "hungry." It is used in the same sense as "hungry" in English and when used with "chuck" as a following word transforms "hunger" into "thirst" or really "water-hunger."

 Examples:  "Nika delate olo," "I am very hungry." "Nika delate olo-chuck," "I am very thirsty." "Nika olo, klosh spose muckamuck," "I am hungry, good if we eat." "Delate nika mamook    olo nika kahkwa lemolo kowmux," "Very much I have worked    hungry I am like a wild-dog." (Idea: "I have worked so hard Iím hungry as a wolf.")

REAR      END      STERN      TAIL.

OPOOTS.

O as in oat; oo as in coo; accent  poots  and pronounce Oh poo-ts s, with hissing s sound at end, slightly held.

 "Opoots" means "rear," "stern," "tail," "posterior," etc.

 Examples:  "Nika kuitan iskum siah opoots," "(He) that horse gets (has) a long tail." "Humm-opoots," "Skunk." (Literally: "Stinking tail.") "Mamook copo canim opoots," "Put (it) in the rear end (stern) of the canoe."

BROTHER.

OW.

Pronounce as written (same as "how" without the "h").

 "Ow" means "brother" but is usually used to mean a younger brother, though not always. The word is not common any more. "Brother" is now usually expressed by saying "His  mother  is  my  mother" or some like word combination showing the relationship and "Ow" is hardly ever heard, though it is good Chinook and should be retained in its full meaning of "brother."

BLANKET.

PAHSEESEE.

Accent  pah  and pronounce Pah-see-see.

 Means primarily "a blanket," and is generally used in this meaning, but also used to mean any heavy woolen cloth, a shawl, etc.

 Examples:  "Konce chickamun okeoke pahseesee?" "How much is this blanket (or shawl)?" "Klosh okeoke pahseesee spose mamook." "That would be a good cloth for a dress." (Good that wool-cloth suppose made into a woman-coat.) "Pahseesee-sail," "Woolen cloth."

DRUNK      FULL OF.

PAHTLUM.

A as in father; u as in rum; accent  pah  and pronounce Pah tlum.

 The original meaning of "Pahtlum" was "full-of" but of late years it has come to mean almost nothing but "drunk" and is rarely used to mean anything else. It should be kept in its original meaning of "filled-up," "full-of," etc.

 Examples:  (Old time use.) "Mamook pahtlum okeoke tamolitsh," "Fill up that bucket" (Make full of (water) that bucket). "Wake lolo pish yowah, okeoke lacasset pahtlum!" "Donít bring (any more) fish here, this box is full!"

 (Modern use.) "Pahtlum okeoke man." "Drunk that man (is)." "Chaco, spose iskum pahtlum?" "Come (on), suppose (we) get drunk."

FATHER.

PAPA.

 English word used in Chinook; means same as it does in English. Also used to mean "Father," "Head of the family," "Man of the house," etc. Same ideas as English.

BUT      AND      THEN      OR.

PE (or TE).

E as in free; pronounce Pee (or pea), Tee (or tea).

 "Pe" usually means "and" and "te" is just as often used as is to mean the same. The words are interchangeable or either can be used at the pleasure of the speaker. Nearly always the meaning is "and" though not always, for in certain cases the meaning is "but," "then," "or," etc. The use in these meanings, however, is so limited that it is almost safe to disregard these meanings and let "and" he the only meaning because but" "then," "or," etc., are more apt to he expressed by the word "copo" or in some cases by "spose" (if), depending on the conversation. I think it would be well to limit the meaning of "pe" or "te" to "and" alone and so use it.

 Examples:  "Nika pe mika klatawa," "You and I (me) go (together)." "Chaco pe lolo mika calipeen," "Come and bring your gun."

CRAZY      FOOLISH      ABSURD      A FOOL.

PELTON.

E as in let; o as in on; accent  pel  and pronounce Pel ton.

 "Pelton" covers the whole idea of insanity, feeble mindedness, foolishness, etc., whether real or assumed. Its exact meaning is made clear by the words used with it.

 Examples:  "Pelton man," "Crazy (insane) man." "Mesika delate pelton," "They are very foolish." "Nika kuitan chaco pelton," "My horse (was) come crazy." "Pelton mika!" "You (are) crazy," (or "foolish") as the case may be.

PAINT.

PENT.

 Corruption of English "paint." Used same as English to mean "paint" or "painted."

 Examples:  "Kah yahka klale pent?" "Where (he) is that black paint?" ("Where is the black paint?") "Mamook tíkope okeoke canim copo klosh pent," "Make white the canoe with good paint." (Idea: "Paint the canoe white.")

PAPER.

PEPAH.

E as in get; a as in father; accent  pe  and pronounce Peh pah.

 Corruption of English "paper" and used to mean paper of any kind.

 Examples:  "Wawa pepah," "A letter" (Talking paper). "Tízum pepah," "Printed paper" (A book or poster, anything printed or colored on paper). "Pepah" is used as a prefix or a followup word to bring out any definite meaning where "paper" in any form is involved.

 Examples:  "Pepah lasack," "Paper sack." "Pepah lacasset," "Paper box," etc.

FIRE      BLAZE      BURN.

PIAH.

I as in pie; a as in father; accent  pi  and pronounce Pi ah as a single syllable word.

 "Piah" primarily means "fire," and the use of prefix or following words associates "fire" or "the  use  of  fire" with any object or subject.

 Examples:  "Piah," "Fire." "Kahkwa piah," "Like fire." "Piah sapolil," "Bread." (Literally: "Flour  changed  by  fire.") "Okeoke piah canim," "That is a fire-boat." (Literally: "A runs  by  fire boat.") "Piah chick-chick" (or "piah chickamun chickchick"), "A locomotive." (Literally: "A runs  by  fire  iron  wagon.")

RED.

PIL.

 Pronounce same as English "pill."

 "Pil" in Chinook means "red" color or any color near-red.

 Examples:  "Okeoke pil-sail," "That is red cloth." "Pil-chickamun," "Red metal" (gold). "Pil-chuck," "Red-water" (really dark water carrying vegetable coloring matter from swamps, etc.). "Pil-chuck," or "Man-pil-chuck" is also used to mean "blood" (literally, Red  water  from  man). "Pil-pil" is also sometimes used to mean "blood" but this is simply another form of the use of "pil" to mean "red," the duplication of the word merely being used to mean "red-red."

POWDER.

POLALIE.

O as in oat; a as in at; i as in thin; accent  po  and pronounce Poh-lal ly.

 "Polalie" alone means "powder" but it is more often used as a descriptive prefix-word to give meaning to other words which it does by making them mean "powder-like."

 Examples:  "Polalie," "Powder" (usually gunpowder). "Polalie illahee," "Sand," or "Sandy ground." (Literally: "Ground (that is) powder-like.") (The same words may mean "dusty," depends on surroundings, subject, etc.) "Kahkwa polalie," "Like powder." "Mamook copo polalie," "Make into powder" (grind, as wheat, corn, etc.) "Klosh polalie okeoke," "Good powder that (is)."

NIGHT.

POLIKELY.

 "Polikely" in Chinook covers the whole idea of "night," "darkness," "gloom," and with "kahkwa" used as a prefix (Kahkwa polikely) it is made to mean "night-like" to cover a smoky or foggy condition of the air which results in half darkness. Primarily, however, the word means "night" or "of-the-night," that is, pertaining to, or a part of, the night, as "Polikely kullakulla" is "Night-bird," meaning the owl, while the bat is "Polikely hoolhool kahkwa kullakulla," or "Night-mouse like-a-bird." (Literally: "The night-mouse that has  wings  and  flies  like  a  bird.")

 Examples:  "Ict polikely," "One night." (This night.) "Copo sitkum polikely," "Half night." (Midnight.) "Chaco copo polikely," "Come in the night." "Konce polikely kapswallie man mamook mahsh nika canim," "When it was night some thief stole (made away with) my canoe." "Okeoke polikely," "Tonight." "Mesika klatawa copo polikely," "They went away in (the) night." "Hiyu kahkwa polikely," "Much like night." "Copo polikely hiyu pish chaco copo skookum-chuck," "In the night many fish come into the river (or lake)."

SHOOT      BLOW      EXPLODE.

POO.

Oo as in coo; pronounce as written.

 "Poo!" is an explosive word in imitation of an explosive sound just as in English we say "Bang!" to mean the noise of a gunshot. "Poo" in Chinook is practically the same as "bang!" in English but it carries the further meaning of "blow" (blow like wind). This is really about the same idea that "puff" covers in English.

 Examples:  "Mamook poo," "(To) make shoot." "Yahka wind mamook poo nika lamp," "He (the) wind blow-out my lamp." "Ict man mamook poo yahka stick copo illahee copo polalie poo," "One man (a man) shoot him (the) stick  in  the  ground with powder-shoot." (Idea: "The man blew the stump out of the ground with powder.") This is an example of how ideas are sometimes brought out in Chinook. The words as spoken do not convey the idea alone but the gestures that go with the words taken in connection with location, speaker, listener and surroundings make the meaning plain to the listener.

TO GIVE      A GIVE-AWAY-FEAST.

POTLATCH.

O as in pot: a as in hat; ch as tísch; accent  pot  and pronounce Pot-latísch.

 The primary meaning of "Potlatch" is really a "give-away-feast." Among the Indians the Potlatch was a great ceremony    the big event in the life of an Indian    the one thing he worked hardest for because it raised him to the dignity of a "big man." In other words he was an able financier if he could give a "potlatch" and the more "potlatch" or "potlatches" he gave the bigger man he was. When an Indian gave a "potlatch" he collected together all his worldly goods and then sent out invitations to all his friends and neighbors and their friends to come and have a feast and a festival at his expense. He provided the "eatables" and "drinkables," the "time, place and the music," and everybody was expected to go in and have the time of their lives singing, dancing, feasting and making merry for as long as they wanted to free of charge and "with the blue sky for the limit." Along toward the finish the man who gave the "potlatch" gave away to the assembled guests everything he owned in the world    all his goods, chattels and belongings of all kinds    and even in some cases his wives! This procedure left him with nothing more than when he entered the world except that he had gained renown    he was now penniless but he was a "big man," really, "somebody," to be looked up to, venerated and pointed out as a "potlatch man." There was, however, a string to things, for everybody who received a gift at a "potlatch" was expected to some time, somewhere, give to the giftmaker something just as valuable (or even a little more valuable) than the present he had received! This is in fact a common characteristic of Indians of all tribes everywhere    if they give you a present you are expected to return a present of equal or more value. The same idea held good in giving "potlatch" gifts, yet the giving of a "potlatch" meant bestowal of great honor on the giver of the "potlatch" who was ever afterwards a "big man" in the eyes of everybody. That was the original meaning of "potlatch." Common usage has made the further meaning into "give," "to give," "pay," a gift," etc. In ordinary conversation it means just plain "give" and is used as we use the English "give" to cover the same ideas "give" covers. The words used with it will, however, stretch its meaning to cover quite a field as above.

 Examples:  "Potlatch okeoke copo nika," "Give that to me." "Wake nika potlatch," "Not will I give (it)." "Nika potlatch chickamun, konce?" "I will pay, how much (is it?)" "Cultas potlatch," "A present." (In this last the word "cultas" changes from its original meaning of "bad" and becomes a word meaning "pleasure" or "take-pleasure-in," so, therefore, "cultas potlatch" translates it into "pleasure-giver" or "It is  a  pleasure  to  give," therefore a "free gift"    a friendly gift given because the giver receives pleasure from giving.

FIGHT.

PUKKUK.

U as in up (both syllables); accent  puk  and pronounce Puk kuk.

 "Pukkuk" means "to-fight," but more in the sense of "fighting hand to hand" than otherwise, though it can be made to mean any kind of a fight anywhere. Other words are used to shade the meaning in various ways.

 Examples:  "Heehee pukkuk," "To box" (A fun-fight). "Delate solleks pukkuk," "A bad fight    a very-mad-fight    a fight where the fighters mean business." "Pelton pukkuk," "Crazy fight." "Mamook pukkuk," "To make-fight." (Force the fighting.) "Klosh pukkuk nika kowmux," "My dog is a good fighter." ("Good-fight(er) my dog (is).")

COUGAR.

PUSSPUSS.

 Duplicate of the English word "puss," a cat. Primarily used to mean the cougar, but by using prefix words is made to mean ordinary housecat, wildcat, cat-like, etc.

 Examples:  "Hyas pusspuss mika iskum," "(A) big cougar you got." (Idea: "You killed a big cougar.") "Tenas pusspuss mitlite copo house," "The little  cat  that  lives  in  the  house" (house cat). "Tízum lemolo pusspuss," "Spotted wildcat." "Okeoke pusspuss muckamuck hoolhool," "That cat ate a mouse."

UP    ABOVE.

SAHALE.

A as in father (both syllables); e as in me; accent  sah  and pronounce Sah-hah lee.

 Alone it means "up," or "up above;" used to denote high or comparative height; full meaning depends on words used with it as "delate sahale," is "very high up," "tenas sahale," the opposite or, literally, "little high," or "little up." Usually used thus: "Sahale tyee" (the up above chief), to mean the Christian idea of God (which by the way is not the Indian conception of the Deity at all, but the white manís idea grafted on to Indian understanding).

 It is altogether likely that "Sahale" at an early time in the history of Chinook meant to the Indian "God" as the white man understands it, that the word was so introduced by the missionaries who adopted some Indian word and gave it this arbitrary meaning in order to carry on their religious work among the Indians. Usage, however, has given the present additional meaning, or rather broadened the meaning to cover "up," "up above," "high ups" etc., in fact, the whole idea of "up." Nowadays if one wants to express the idea of the white manís "God" he must say "sahale-tyee" or "up-above-chief" on account of the present broad meaning of "sahale."

CLOTH      WOVEN GOODS.

SAIL.

 Same as English.

 "Sail" means in Chinook "cloth" of any kind; color, material, texture, etc., being fixed by combination with other words as you would say "cotton-cloth," "black-cloth," etc. The word also means "a sail" for a boat, so it has two distinct idea-meanings, each of which is used separately with "sail" to mean "cloth" in one case or "boat-sail" in the other. This would seem to be confusing but it is not, for the word combinations used with "sail" in the "cloth" sense have to do with "cloth" as a commodity, while the words used with "sail" in the "boat sail" sense have to do with the handling of a boat, so the meaning is always clear.

 Examples (Boat sail): "Mamook keekwillie mika sail," "(Make) take down your sail." "Hyas sail nika iskum copo canim," "(A) big sail I get (have) on (my) canoe."

 (Cloth examples.) "Klosh tízum sail okeoke," "Good colored (print) cloth that (is)." ("That is good calico.") "Nika iskum waum sail?" "(Have) you got some warm-cloth?" (Woolen.) "Kahkwa snass-sail (or pent-sail)," "Like oilcloth (or painted cloth)."

SALLALBERRY.

SALLAL.

A as in salmon (both syllables); accent  lal  and pronounce Sal lal.

 A wild berry (the gualtheria Shallon) common to the wooded districts of the Coast and to the Rocky Mountain timbered country. Formerly used as food but now hardly ever used at all, and the word has been incorporated into English and used to designate both the berry and the plant itself, and when used in Chinook is used exactly as "strawberry," "blackberry," etc., are used in English.

SALMON.

SALMON.

 English name incorporated into Chinook and used to cover all the salmon tribe of fishes that swim the seas. Used exactly as it is used in English with prefix words to designate the particular kind of salmon, thus: "Tyee salmon," "Chief salmon" (Quinat). "Tízum salmon," "The spotted salmon" (trout). "Tenas salmon," "Little salmon." "Silber salmon," "Silver salmon." "Kowmux salmon," "Dog salmon."

SALT.

SALT.

 English word used in Chinook exactly as used in English. Used as a prefix for water, thus: "Salt chuck" means "Salt water" or "ocean." Otherwise same as English.

FLOUR      MEAL.

SAPOLIL.

A as in sap; o as in oat; i as in lily; accent  sap  and pronounce Sap-poh lil.

 "Sapolil" means meal or flour made from any kind of grain. It is usually used in connection with "Piah" to mean the idea "baked-bread" (Piah sapolil). Outside of this it usually means wheat-flour and is mostly used as a trade word to designate flour when buying supplies. It can, however, mean "meal" or kind of ground-up-grain, depending on the words used with it to qualify the kind of flour intended. In this case the English word precedes it, as "Cohn-sapolil" means "corn meal" and "Kuitan sapolil" would mean "ground  grain  for  horsefeed" just as moosmoos-sapolil" would mean "ground  up  grain  for  cows  to  eat" (by inference, "shorts" or "bran," usually).

EYES      FACE.

SEEOWIST.

E as in me; ow together as in cow; i as in it; accent  see  and pronounce See-ow-wist.

 Primarily "Seeowist" means "eyes" and is more often used to mean eyes or to fix something used in connection with the eyes than any other way. It is flexible enough, however, to mean "see," or rather more nearly "eyesight," and even to mean "face" sometimes, though not often. In common usage is used to mean almost exclusively "eyes."

 Examples:  "Nika seeowist chaco sick," "My eyes are sick." (Sore, hurt, do not see well.) "Yahka ladoctin wawa nika iskum dollah seeowist," "He (the) doctor says I (must) get spectacles (dollar  shaped  glasses) for my eyes." "Mika tilacum yahka Boston klootchman yahka seeowist klale," "My friend she (the white woman), her eyes are black (or blue) in color." "Klosh nika seeowist?" "Are your eyes good?"

 Note:    "Nanage" is the word commonly used for "see" instead of "seeowist" and in ordinary conversation "nanage" would be used to mean "look," "see," etc., and "seeowist" to mean the "eyes."

HAT.

CHAPPO.

 French "Chapeau" incorporated into Chinook with its original meaning but now practically obsolete. Used yet to some extent to mean "hat" or "cap." "Klootchman chappo" means "woman-hat," The word is now practically out of use.

SHAME.

SHEM.

 The English word incorporated into Chinook with its English meaning but Indian pronunciation. Used and means same as English "shame."

FAR      LONG DISTANCE      LENGTH.

SIAH.

I as in sight; a as in father; accent  si  and pronounce Sigh ah.

 "Siah" is usually used to mean "far" or "far-away-from," though it is quite frequently used to mean length as "Okeoke siah," "That is long," or "Wake siah okeoke," "Not long that is (that is short)." Its usual use is to indicate long  distance  in  travel, in the length of a road, river, etc.

 Examples:  "Konce siah copo mika house?" "How much far is it to your house." "Delate s i a h mika mitlite," "It is a very long distance (to where) I live." Great distance is indicated by drawing out the word as indicated above just the same as long-time    past is indicated by drawing out "ahncuttie," and in like manner still greater distance is indicated by adding "delate" or "hiyu" as prefix words and drawing these words out in like manner. "Siah nika chaco okeoke sun," "Far I have come today." "Wake siah," "Not far" (short distance).

GRIZZLY BEAR.

SIAM.

I as in high; a as in am; accent  am  and pronounce Sigh ahm.

 Old Chinook for "Grizzly bear," but so little used nowadays as to be obsolete. Should be preserved and used to mean what "grizzly bear" does in English.

SIAWASH INDIAN.

SIAWASH.

I as in sigh; a as in ah (very slightly); a as in wash; accent  si  and pronounce Sigh-ah-wash.

 "Siawash" originally meant the Indian man of the West Coast north of the Columbia River. Common usage, however, has made the meaning to cover "Indians" as a people, men, women and children alike, and anything connected with them is designated "Siawash," meaning "Indian owned," "Indian made," "Indian like," etc.

 In Chinook usage "Siawash" means "Indian" or "Indians," or "Indian man," "Indian woman," "Indian child" or "Indian property" as the case may demand. If it is "Indian" in any way it is "Siawash" in Chinook. Use it accordingly with prefix or follow up words to bring the whole meaning out.

 Examples:  "Siawash canim," "Indian canoe." "Siawash man," "Indian man." "Siawash cosho," "Indian pig" (the hair seal). "Siawash ictas," "Indian things."

SICK.

SICK.

 English word with its English meaning incorporated into Chinook. Use it with qualifying words the same as in English to designate the "kind of sick" and it will be right.

 Examples:  "Waum-sick," "Fever." "Cole-sick," "Chill." "Delate sick," "Very sick," "Sick tumtum," "Sick at heart." "Sick copo home," "Homesick"

SEVEN.

SINAMOX.

I as in sin; a as in father; o as in ox; accent  sin  and pronounce Sin a mocks.

 The numeral "Seven." No other meaning. Use just as English "seven" would be used under all conditions.

 (See "Counting in Chinook" for use in making higher numbers.)

ONE-HALF      THE MIDDLE.

SITKUM.

S as in sit; u as in up; accent  sit  and pronounce Sit kum.

 "Sitkum" primarily means "one-half" but it can mean any fractional part by using prefix words to mean "larger half," "much larger half," "smaller half," "much, very much, etc., smaller half," etc., thus: "Tenas sitkum," "Small-half." "Delate tenas sitkum," "Very much smaller half" (one-third, one-fourth, etc.) "Hiyu sitkum," "The big half," etc. "Elip sitkum," means Before the middle," or really the "early half" or "first half." "Kimtah sitkum," "The behind half," or the "Last or later half." It is thus used to mean "forenoon" or "afternoon," etc., in designating time. Its most common use is to denote "one-half" or some fractional part.

SKIN      LEATHERY      RIND.

SKIN.

 "Skin" is the English word in Chinook, meaning and all, and with the added meanings of "leather," "rawhide," "hide," etc. Anything of any kind or shape made of any skin or leather is "skin" in Chinook and the word is almost always used as a prefix to some other word so that it really means "made-of-skin," thus: "Skin lacasset," "A purse or handbag    a leather covered trunk." "Skin shoe," "Leather shoes" (white menís shoes, not moccasins). "Mowitch skin," "Buckskin." "Skin lope," "Rawhide rope" (or string), etc.

STRONG      GREAT STRENGTH      PERFECTION     PERSONAL WORTH.

SKOOKUM.

Oo as in coo; um as in hum; accent  skoo  and pronounce Skoo kum.

 "Skookum" has a wide scope of meaning and is in a way interchangeable with "klosh" (good), yet the good Chinook speaker makes a difference in the use of the two words. "Skookum" is usually used to mean "great strength" in the sense that a perfectly healthy, large, athletic man would fill the exact definition of "Skookum-man," while a very powerful engine would be spoken of as being "delate skookum," meaning "very strong" (powerful). "Klosh" could mean the same thing but it is usually used to mean "goodness" in some form, that is, "goodness of heart," "kindness," "worth," etc., while "skookum" has to do more with personal muscular strength or power-in-structure. To use the words properly let "skookum" have a primary meaning of "strong," "strength," etc., and "klosh" mean "good," "worth," etc., and use whichever word fits the case best, though either one can be used in place of the other. If a thing be strong, tough, powerful (or any other like idea), it is "skookum."

 Examples:  "Skookum man okeoke," "A strong man (that is)." "Skookum stick," "Tough wood. (The wood to make bows from.) "Skookum lope," "A strong rope." "Skookum-chuck," "Fresh water." (This really means "Good-for-you water," that is, "makes-you-strong water," as compared to "salt-chuck" which is "salt-water"    not  fit  to  drink.) "Delate skookum nika kuitan," "Very strong my horse is." (Idea meaning: "A well muscled, strong working or far-traveling horse    a tough, hardy animal good for work or travel.) "Skookum wawa," "A good speech" (in the sense that the logic is strong, the argument is clear, strong good, etc.) "Okeoke man delate skookum at man has a very strong mind." (A thinker, a leader, a good speaker, a wise man.)

RAIN.

SNASS.

 Pronounce as spelled (a as in has).

 Chinook word for "rain"; no other meaning.

 Examples:  "Hiyu snass," "Much rain." "Cole snass," "Snow" (cold rain). "Kahkwa snass," "Mist," (like rain). "Cultas snass," "Fog." "Halo nika klatawa copo snass," "I will not go in the rain." ("No I go in rain.")

PANTALOONS      LEGGINS.

SOKOLUKS.

O as in soak (both syllables); u as in up; accent  kol  and pronounce So koll uks.

 Means originally "Indian leggins," but later broadened to mean "white menís leggins" (pantaloons) Now about obsolete and so little used as to be almost unknown.

MAD      ANGRY      VEXED      TEMPER.

SOLLEKS.

O as in solemn; e as in get; accent  sol  and pronounce Soll ecks.

 "Solleks" in Chinook covers the whole idea of angry as understood in English. All degrees of angry, mad, vexed, out of temper, etc., are "solleks," the particular degree being fixed by qualifying prefix words usually and if not used this way then by the use of "solleks" in connection with the other words in the sentence.

 Examples:  "Nika chaco solleks," "I got mad." (Literally: "I come mad.") "Delate solleks nika kowmux pe hiyu pukkuk," "My dog was very mad and much fought." "Yahka delate cultas man, konce chaco solleks mamook konaway ictas kokshut hyas hyak, a a ah!" "He (is a) very bad man, when (he) comes mad (he) makes all things smashed big quick    yes!" "Chim pe Tom chaco solleks, pe mamook pukkuk pe tyee lolo copo skookum house," "Jim and Tom got mad and fought and the law chief (policeman) carried (put) them in the strong-house (jail)."

JUMP.

SOPENA.

O as in soap; e as in see; a as in father; accent  so  and pronounce So peen nah.

 Chinook meaning is "jump" or "spring," "leap," "hop," etc. Very little used nowadays but should be preserved as it is good Chinook.

 Examples:  "Sopena nika!" "Jump you!" "Halo nika sopena," "Not will I jump" (no me jump).

IF      SUPPOSE.

SPOSE.

O as in oat; pronounce same as English.

 "Spose" is a corruption of the English word "suppose" and means in Chinook about what "suppose" means in English. It is usually used the same as "if" is used in English.

 Examples:  "Spose mika chaco mamook," "Suppose you come and work (for me)." "Nika kwan spose iskum mowitch," "I (will be) glad if (I) get a deer." "Spose okeoke stone delate kull halo mika mamook kokshut," "If that stone is too hard do not (try) you (to) break it." "Delate tanze pe hiyu heehee mesika mamook spose konaway mika klootchman chaco copo nika house," "Very much dance and big fun we make suppose all your women come to my house." "Spose wake klap nika kuitan halo mesika klatawa copo Seattle," "If (I) cannot find my horses we will not go to Seattle." (Literally: "If not find my horses not we go Seattle.")

TREE      TIMBER      LUMBER.

STICK.

 Same as English.

 The word "stick" is used to denote "tree" or "wood" of any kind    "anything  made  of  wood." It is used alone to mean "tree" or a "timber" of any kind, a "pole," "large plank," "bridge timber," etc., its other uses make it a prefix word to mean "wooden," "made of wood," "like wood," etc.

 Examples:  "Yahka stick," "Him (that) tree," (or a pole, a big plank, a timber, etc., depending on object, subject and surroundings). "Whim stick," "Down-timber" (fallen logs, etc., a stick or tree on the ground). "Stick ship," "A wooden ship." "Stick calipeen," "A bow" (wooden gun). "Nika tika ax stick," "I want an ax handle."

STONE      ROCK      STONELIKE.

STONE.

 The English word pronounced as English and used as English and also used as a prefix word in Chinook to fix the stone-like quality to other words    to make them mean "hard-like-stone." Use as in English.

EIGHT.

STOTEKIN.

O as in oat; e as in eat; i as in tin; accent  stote  and pronounce Stote e kin.

 The numeral "eight." Has no other meaning.

 (See "Counting in Chinook" for use in making higher numbers.)

SUGAR.

SUKWAH.

U sounds as oo in coo; a as in father; accent  suk  and pronounce Sook-wah.

 The English word "sugar" pronounced in Indian patois which substitutes "k" for "g" and "ah" for "r." Used and means the same as English "sugar" when used in Chinook.

SUN.

SUN.

 The English word, meaning and all, incorporated into Chinook and given the further broader meaning of "a day," as a measure of time.

 Examples:  "Okeoke sun," "That (is the) sun." "Ict sun," "One sun" (one day    the time it takes the sun to cross the sky once). "Okeoke sun," is also used to mean "this day" (today). "Sitkum sun," "Middle-day" (noon). "Elip sitkum sun," "Before middle-day" (forenoon). "Kimtah sitkum sun," "After middle day" (afternoon). "Wake sun," "Dark (cloudy, no sun)" "Hiyu sun," "Much sun" (hot, bright).

SUNDAY.

SUNDAY.

 Same as English, pronounced same, means same, used same.

 "Hyas Sunday," "Holiday" (big Sunday). "Ict Sunday," "One week," etc.

THE GODS      MAGIC      GHOST      ANYTHING BEYOND HUMAN UNDERSTANDING      THE MANY-THINGS-UNKNOWN      THE WHOLE IDEA OF THE SUPER-NATURAL FROM ANY ANGLE.

TAHMAHNAWIS.

A as in father in all three syllables; i as in hiss; accent  mah  and pronounce Tah  mah  nah  wiss with hissing s sound at end of the word.

 Anything that a West Coast Indian does not see a logical, connected sequence of events plainly accounting for, he calls "Tahmahnawis." The word alone means "supernatural," "supernatural power," "agencies not understood by mankind," "magic things." etc. The "Tahmahnawis" idea goes even further than this for it gives  supernatural  power to inanimate objects, or credits them with already having such power. It also covers the whole idea of "luck" (good or bad) and of "the-evil-eye" or power  to  injure  by  supernatural  power. Anything and everything God-like, Devil-like, Spirit-like, etc., is "Tahmahnawis" or has to do with "Tahmahnawis." Aid for the sick comes only by the practice of certain "magic" or "Tahmahnawis" rites, songs, incantations or ceremonies. Luck is granted the same way to the person who knows how to appeal for help to the spirits of the unseen world. One can "cast a spell" or injure his enemies, or gain help for himself in the same way. A "medicine man" in white understanding is to the Indian a "Tahmahnawis man," (literally) "A man in touch with the spirits and the whole world of magic, supernatural power, the  many  things  unknown and the unseen, dreaded powers that are invisible," etc. (and not understood to mean a doctor of medicine at all. Really, "Medicine-man" conveys the idea that a man is a "magician  priest  doctor  wonder  worker man.")

 "Tahmahnawis" is divided in the Indian understanding into the good or "Klosh Tahmahnawis" (which are the helping Gods and powers that work for good influence over a manís life acts), the "Klale Tahmahnawis" (which is, literally, "black magic" and is the evil power that brings sickness, death, bad luck and misfortune), the "Sahale Tahmahnawis" (which has to do with the up above-Gods, the Christian understanding of the Creator and all connected with God or Jesus) and the "Sick (or) Medicine Tahmahnawis" (the practice of healing  by  aid  of  magic  ceremonies of the medicine man).

 There is not space here to give a full description of the far reaching meaning of "Tahmahnawis" to the Indian understanding nor to describe the "Tahmahnawis" ceremonies used in healing the sick, nor to describe the "Red Tahmahnawis," a ceremonial incantation  dance of thanks  for  good  luck and appeal  for  further  protection that was originally practiced by West Coast Indians for three or four days each year. Nor can we go into the ceremonies of the great "Klale Tahmahnawis" which was and had to do with an organized secret society closely allied to Masonry, in some ways, among the Indians, but with additional rites, practices and ceremonies of a nature that made the name "Klale Tahmahnawis" (literally, "Black-magic" society), feared everywhere for its terrors, both real and fancied    (cannibalism was frequently practiced by this society and sometimes a live slave or captive was actually torn to pieces by the teeth of the society members and the victimís flesh eaten raw), nor can we describe the "Tahmahnawis" of a religious character that had to do strictly with the Gods and God-like things. Each branch of "Tahmahnawis" could be made to fill a book before it was finished, and a study of the "Tahmahnawis" idea as found among all the Indian tribes of the continent (in some form or other of ceremonial performances, etc.) is the most fascinating thing connected with Indians. It is so weird, so full of the unseen, the "many  things  unknown" that it makes one "creep" and wonder if there really can be anything behind the idea of "Tahmahnawis" more than the lack of ability of the human understanding to grasp the unknown, unseen powers that are cosmic in their scope.

 For the purposes of Chinook, let the word "Tahmahnawis" cover all the ideas explained briefly above and use it as a prefix word to attach these meanings or any one of them to the subject under discussion. Use it alone to mean any or all of the "Many  things  unknown," or bring it into a sentence any way to modify or attach to the sentence idea any or all of the above ideas and it will be used properly so far as Chinook usage is concerned.

 Examples:  "Okeoke nika tahmahnawis," "That (is) my guardian spirit (my protector)." "Klosh tahmahnawis okeoke," "Good magic that" (has protective powers). "Okeoke klale tahmahnawis," "That (is) black magic (something with far-reaching power to work injury)." "Tahmahnawis ictas," "Things of (or having to do with) magic, or the practice of magic ceremonies, rites, etc." "Tahmahnawis man," "A medicine man." (The medicine man was, first, a conjurer or maker-worker of magic; second, a priest or maker  talker  worker of religious rites and ceremonies; third, a doctor of medicine who cured by the use of a few simple remedies and the sweat bath, together with a large amount of the ceremonial performances of both of the other above "Tahmahnawis" branches of his profession (Nos. 1 and 2); and, fourth, a man of such personal, supernatural  powers  derived  through  his  personal  contact  with  both  good  and  evil  spirits, that he could work great good or bad as he chose into the everyday life of anyone by the use of certain ceremonies or even by "wishing" things to happen. He was always the most feared and best hated man in the tribe and his power was greater or less, depending on his past record of things accomplished, and he was, to be sure, always quick to turn anything to advantage to add to his reputation.)

BUCKET      BARREL.

TAHMOLITSH.

A as in father; o as in oat; i as in hit; accent  mo  and pronounce Tah-mow-litsch.

 This word is used to mean a "barrel," "wooden bucket," "cask," "keg," "wooden tub" or any similar object. It as not in very common use any more, however, the English names of each object above being used in place of it, indicates it will soon be obsolete. Use same as English name-word would be used.

COYOTE.

TALAPUS.

A as in hat; a as in father; u as in puss; accent  tal  and pronounce Tal-a-puss.

 Means "coyote" or "little  wolf  of  the  prairie." It also means "sneaking," "wolf-like," etc., mostly, however, it is used as the name of this particular animal and is used very little west of the Cascade Mountains.

 Examples:  "Nika nanage mox talapus," "I saw two coyotes." "Yahka man delate talapus," "That man (he) is a sneak." (He is wolf-like    will bear watching    unreliable, etc.)

DANCE.

TANZE.

 The English word "Dance" in Indian patois.

 Has no meaning other than the idea covered by "dance" in English. Use same as English "dance."

 Examples:  "Chaco copo nika tanze," "Come to my dance." "Kah okeoke tanze?" "Where is the dance?" "Nika nanage itswoot mamook tanze," "I saw a black bear dancing." (The black bear has a habit of standing on his hind feet and stepping sidewise slowly with a swaying motion when all alone in the woods. This is probably done to enable him to see over the bushes, etc. The movement is considerably like a slow Indian dance    hence the above use of "tanze," ("I saw a black bear making-dance.")

TEN.

TATLUM.

A as in hat; u as in hum; accent  tat  and pronounce Tat lum.

 "Tatlum" is Chinook for the numeral "ten" and has no other meaning. (See "Counting in Chinook" for use in connection with other numbers.)

MILK.

TATOOSH.

A as in hat; oo as in coo; accent  tat  and pronounce Tat-too sch.

 This word more properly means "The breasts-of-a-woman" or "Round-like-a-womanís breast." In actual use in Chinook the above is the primary meaning, but like many other Chinook words it has been "stretched" to cover associated ideas connected with the original or primary meaning until now "Tatoosh" means "breasts" (in above sense), "milk," "udder," "bosom," "teat," etc.; in short, the whole idea of the female food  supply  for  the  offspring. It is used in speaking of cattle or other animals more than any way in the above meanings, though it is also used in connection with mother and babe.

 Examples:  "Halo yahka moosmoos mamook muckamuck copo bebe iskum sick tatoosh," "No she (that) cow make food for baby    get sick udder." (Idea: "That cow does not nurse her calf because her udder is sore.")

A FRIEND      PEOPLE      TRIBE      PERSON      RELATIVES      A MATE TO OR FRIEND-OF.

TILACUM.

 ("Tilikums of Elttaes" spelling Tilikum.)

I as in till; a as in father; u as in up; accent  til  and pronounce Till-ah kum.

 "Tilacum" is primarily the Chinook word for "friend" or "my friend," and is always used to indicate "friend," "friends," "friendly," etc. In actual use it is stretched to mean any person or persons, strangers, crowds, people, relatives, etc. The exact meaning is always given by qualifying words that are used usually (but not always) as prefix words to fix the idea of "crowd," "people," "friend," "stranger," "relative," "person" or some like idea, and to give it a definite relationship to the subject under discussion. The speaker and hearer, situation, surroundings and subject in hand all have a hearing on and help directly to give the exact meaning to the spoken word in the use of "tilacum" just as they do with very many Chinook words in actual use.

 Examples:  "Nika tilacum," "My friend." "Konaway nika tilacum," "All of my relations (or friends or tribe)." "Huloime tilacums," "Different people (not my tribe)." "Opitsah tilacum," "A table fork (literally, a friend    of or mate    to the knife)." "Ahncuttie tilacum," "An old-time friend (an old resident, old-timer)." "Hiyu tilacum," "A crowd    many people." "Konaway tilacum klatawa," "All (the) people (have) gone," or "All my friends have gone" (depending on surrounding conditions). "Klosh tilacums," "Good friends."

TIRED      HEAVY.

TILL.

I as in kill; pronounce as written.

 "Till" means either "tired" or "heavy-in-weight." In the first meaning it is used as we use "tired" in English except that "chaco" (come) is usually used as a prefix and in the second meaning it is used to mean usually "great weight," though it may mean any weight or a comparative weight, depending on surroundings and how it is used.

 Examples:  "Nika chaco till," "I am tired" (literally, "I come tired.") "Wake till nika," "Not tired (am) I." "Nika klootchman delate till, mesika mitlite," "My woman (is) very tired, we (will) stop (here)." "Okeoke stick delate till," "That timber (is) very heavy." "Till kahkwa chickmun," "Heavy like iron (or metal)." "Hiyu till okeoke, wake mitlite copo canim," "Very heavy that (is), not (let it) stay in (the) canoe." (Idea: "That is too heavy    do not put in the canoe.") "Yahka stone delate till; hyas till nika, spose lolo," "He (that) stone (is) very heavy, big tired me (I would be) suppose (I) carry (it)." (Idea: "That is a heavy stone; it would make me tired to carry it.")

SMALL      LITTLE      FEW      SHORT.

TENAS.

E as in pen; a as in pass; accent  ten  and pronounce Ten as.

 "Tenas" is the symbol of "small size" in Chinook and is used as a prefix or as a following word in any sentence to connect the small-size" idea or the idea "few-in-numbers," "short," "little," etc., with the subject in hand. Anything that is small is always spoken of as "tenas" just as anything large is called "hyas" in speaking Chinook.

 Examples:  "Tenas man," "A boy." "Tenas whim stick," "A small log." "Delate tenas," "Very small." "Tenas siah," "A short distance." "Okeoke delate hyas; mamook tenas," "That is too big; make it small." "Tenas lope," "A string (small rope)." "Nika tika tenas cosho gleece," "I want a little lard." "Tenas chickamun, halo nika mamook," "Little money, no I work." (Idea: "The pay is too small, I wonít work for that.") "Klosh spose tenas piah," "Good if little fire." (Idea: "A little fire would be good to have.") "Nika kowmux iskum klone tenas bebe," "My dog has three little puppies."

WANT      DESIRE      WISH FOR.

TIKA.

I as in it; a as in father; accent  ti  and pronounce Tick ah.

 "Tika" is the word conveying the idea that "I want," or "wish for," "he wants," "they want," "I did want," "I will want," or any combination indicating present, past or future "desire" on the part of any one or group, its exact meaning depending on the words used with it.

 Examples:  "Nika tika okeoke," "I want that." "Wake okeoke man tika okeoke," "Not that man wants that," (Literally: "That man does not want that.") "Wake lalie nika tika okeoke." (Literally: "Not long I want that.") "I will want that before long."

 "Tika" covers the whole idea of "desire" or "want" as understood in English and should be used as "I want," "desire," "wish for," etc., are used in English.

BELL.

TINTIN.

Pronounce Tin-tin.

 This word means "bell" and is an example of imitation of sound being made into a word to mean the sound of the thing that makes it. It is sometimes used to mean "hour" in the sense of the clock  bell  rings  on  the  hour, therefore, "Ict tintin," is "one hour" (from any given starting point as noon ("sitkum-sun"), etc.). The word is now almost obsolete.

HAIR.

TIPSO.

I as in hit; o as in oat; accent  tip  and pronounce Tip soh.

 Means primarily "hair" but is flexible enough so it covers "grass" or any like plant which is, by using "Illahee" as a prefix word, converted into "earth-hair" (Illahee tipso). Any kind of fur or hair or anything hair-like is "tipso" and nearly always some prefix word is used to fix the kind or color of the hair. Sometimes it is "hair-of-the" when some following word is used to name some particular thing, thus: "Tipso copo mowitch" (hair-of-the deer); usually a prefix word is used, however, instead of a followup word with it.

 Examples:  "Nika klale tipso," "I (have) black hair." "Konaway illahee tipso klosh    mamook cut?" "The grass is good (ripe, full grown) (shall I) make it cut?" "Konce chaco cole yahka ena tipso delate klosh," "When the cold comes he (the) beaver fur (it) will be very good."

WHITE.

TíKOPE.

O as in oat; accent  kope  and pronounce T kope with the "T" sound sharp, short and distinct. To make it try the sounds of "T" and "K" each separate but made as quickly as you can, "T" first, "K" following, then add "ope" as in hope.

 The word means "white" and is used to designate "pure white" or any color near-white as "gray," "light yellow," etc. Mostly it is used to mean "white" as against any other color, however, and it is a qualifying word for fixing the color of an object in its usual use.

 Examples:  "Tíkope chickamun," "White metal (silver)." "Okeoke tíkope house," "That is a white house." "Tíkope pent delate klosh," "White paint is very good."

SIX.

TOKUM.

O as in oak; u as in hum; accent  tok  and pronounce Tohk um with slight h sound as indicated in first syllable.

 "Tokum" means the numeral "six" and nothing else, and is used as six is used in English. (See "Counting in Chinook" for use in making higher numbers.)

TOMORROW.

TOMOLLAH.

 Corruption of the English "tomorrow" used in Chinook to mean same as "tomorrow" in English. Use same way.

CRACK      SPLIT.

TíSCHUG.

Pronounce as written with Tís as a hissing sound.

 Means "crack" or "split" but is so little used as to be practically obsolete. Should be preserved.

 Examples:  "Mamook tíschug okeoke stick," "Split the wood." "Delate solleks yahka tahmahnawis mamook illahee delate tíschug pe lamountín delate piah," "Very angry him (the) Tahmahnawis, (they) make (the) earth very much crack open and (the) mountains very much burn."

SWEET.

TíSEE.

 Means "sweet." Little used now. "Kahkwa sukwah," (like sugar) is more apt to be used now. "Tísee" should be preserved in its present meaning, however, as it is good Chinook.

TO MISS      MISTAKE.

TíSEEPEE.

Tís as a hissing sound; ee as in sleep; accent  tísee  and pronounce Tse e pee.

 "Tíseepee" means "mistake" primarily but it is used as a qualifying word to mean "error," "blunder," "deceit," etc.

 Examples:  "Tíseepee illahee," "False point" (meaning a point of land that looks like another one that serves as a guide    a false landmark). "John mamook poo copo mowitch pe tíseepee pe halo iskum," "John shot at a deer but missed and no get (it)."

 The word is very little used now and is scarcely ever heard in the Puget Sound country. There is no good reason why it should not be preserved as it is good Chinook.

ONE HUNDRED.

TUKAMONOCK.

U as in up; o as in more; o as in knock; accent  mo  and pronounce Tuck-a-moh-nock.

 Means "One hundred" (numeral). (For uses see "Counting in Chinook.")

THINK      THE MIND      HEART      INTELLECT      SPIRIT      THOUGHT      MEMORY      KNOW      THE ENTIRE MENTAL PROCESS.

TUMTUM.

U as in sum in both syllables; accent first syllable  tum  and pronounce Tum-tum.

 "Tumtum" is the Chinook word-symbol for the whole mental process, "the mind," "thinking," etc., and it also covers "the heart" in the sense of the emotions of "good will," "hate," "fear," "grief," "love," "sorrow," "anger," etc., which are all developed in the sentence by use of a prefix word coupled with "tumtum," thus: "Klosh nika tumtum copo mika," "Good-my-heart-is toward you"    "I think well of you"    "I esteem you," etc. "Nika sick tumtum," "I am sick-in-my-heart (or mind)." (Idea: "I grieve (or feel-sorry) for you.") In ordinary conversation it is used in one meaning as much as in the other and in some instances it conveys a double meaning of heart-and-mind as in the case (above) of grief expression. Use it to cover the description of anything connected with the mind or mental-process or with the-heart-in a mental-sense and it will be correct.

 Examples:  "Tumtum nika klatawa," "(I) think I (will) go." "Halo mika klosh tumtum," "No you good-think" or "Your heart-is-not-right (toward us)." "Nika tumtum copo illahee," "My heart-is-on-the-ground." (Idea: "I am plunged in despair.") "Icta mika tumtum?" "What do you think?" "Wake klosh tumtum nika," "No good-think me." (I do not think-well-of-it.) "Halo comtox, tumtum cultas," "(I) do not know (but I) think (it is) bad." (Literally: "No understand, think-bad.") "Yahka klootchman sick tumtum copo man," "That woman mourns-in-her-heart for her man." "Mamook mahsh copo tumtum," "Get it out-of-your-mind" (Literally: "Make throw-away-from (you) think (what-you-think)") "Kwonesum kahkwa nika tumtum," "I think-the-same as you do." ("I agree with you.") (Literally: "Always-the-same-as (you) I think.") "Klosh tumtum man," "A thinker    a man with a mind." "Delate heehee-tumtum mesika mamook," "A joyful time we will have." (Literally: "Great fun-in-mind we (will) make-do.")

NEEDLE.

TUPSHIN.

U as in up; i as in skin; accent  tup  and pronounce Tupp-shin.

 Means a "needle." Use same as English "needle." Little used except in trading.

 Examples:  "Mamook coat klosh copo tupshin," "Make good the coat with a needle" (mend the coat). "Kah nika tupshin?" "Where (is) my needle?"

BRIGHT      SHINING.

TWAGH.

A as in father; pronounce Twah-guh. (This is as near as English will give the sound of "gh.")

 "Twagh" means "star" or "light," "bright light," "shining," "glittering," etc. It is little used, however, and would be understood by few Chinook speakers of today. It should be preserved in the above meanings as it is good Chinook.

 Examples:  "Yowah delate twagh," "There is a fine, bright star." "Boston man mamook twagh copo nose copo polalie-illahee copo salt-chuck," "(The) white man (has) built (a) light on (the) point of (the) sandspit (that runs) into (the) saltwater."

CHIEF      THE HEAD MAN      LEADER.

TYEE.

Y has the sound of i as in high; ee as in meet; accent  ty  and pronounce Tie ee.

 "Tyee" is Chinook for "the-leader" or "chief-man" but is used in any case where a "head-man," "leader-of," "foreman," "boss," etc., is meant. The word "chief" in English can be made to mean almost anything that "tyee" will cover in Chinook and it would have to be qualified the same way to bring out the meaning as "the chief-man," the "chief-horse," etc. "Tyee" is handled in Chinook in like manner to mean the same.

 Examples:  "Nika tika nanage copo tyee," "I want to see the head-man (boss, foreman, etc.)." "Nika nanage moosmoos tyee," "I saw the leader of the elk (herd)." "Okeoke tyee calipeen," "That (is a) chief-gun." (Idea: "That gun is so big (or so good) that it is a chief-gun    a leader-among-guns    the best-one.") "Tyee copo konaway man," "The leader of (or chief-over) all men" (meaning a President, King, etc.).

SPOTTED      MIXED COLORS.

TíZUM.

T sounds t s s s; u as in up; accent  zum  and pronounce T s s s zum.

 Means "spotted" primarily, but the idea of "spotted" is enlarged to cover any mixed or broken colors, anything printed, marked, figured, written or painted.

 Examples:  "Okeoke tízum papah," "That letter (or newspaper, printed paper, etc.)" "Tízum sail okeoke," "That is broken-color cloth" (plaid, calico, etc., where colors are not used solid). "Yahka man comtox chuck stick copo tízum mamook copo," "He (the) man knows his logs in the water by the mark he puts on." "Delate hiyu tenas tízum pish," "Very great many little-spotted-fish (trout)." "Okeoke man wawa copo tízum stick," "That man talks with a stick-that-makes-marks (pencil, pen or brush)."

GRUNTED "UGH!"

UGH.

 Many wordless expressions of thought are used by Indians to express definite ideas that are as well understood as words. The grunted "Uh" or "Ugh" is used in Chinook by many Indians and has various meanings the same as anything else spoken. To use this "grunt" intelligently one must know the way to give its meaning by inflection, thus:

"UGH"    Just short, and with level tone means that "I agree with you," "yes," "all right," etc.

"UGH"    Prolonged, with upward inflection, means wonder, "Is that so?" "Can it be!" etc.

"UGH"    Prolonged, with downward inflection, but spoken softly, means "pity," "sympathy," "helplessness," etc.

"UGH"    Explosive, short, sharp and rather loud means protest, "No, no!" "Do not!" etc.

 The Chinook student should master all the various tonal meanings of "Ugh" and also the full meanings and tones of "A a a h!" "A a a a nah!" and "A a a e!" for the Indians use these "grunts" a great deal and convey a lot of ideas by their uses. (See above three words under "A.")

NONE      NOT.

WAKE.

A as in skate; e almost silent; pronounce same as English.

 "Wake" in Chinook is, in a way, interchangeable with "Halo" and means "not," "none" or "no." It is, however, not so positive in negative power as "No" in a usual sense, though it can be if necessary. In ordinary conversation it is used more to mean "not" than in any other sense, and "Halo" is used to mean positive "NO."

 Examples:  "Wake mika tika okeoke," "Not I wish-for that." "Wake hiyu," "Not many." "Wake siah," "Not far." "Wake nika tumtum," "I think not." "Wake klosh okeoke," "That is not good." "Wake mesika mamook," "We will not do that" "Klosh kahkwa    wake mahsh," "It is good    let it alone." (Literally: Good like-that, not (you) throw-away (it).) (Idea: "It is good, do not disturb it.") "Wake nika nanage," "I did not see (it)." "Wake lalie nesika chaco," "We will come before long." (Literally: "Not-long we come.")

POTATO.

WAPATO.

A as in swap; a as in fate; o as in oat; accent  wap  and pronounce Wap-pay toh.

 Originally this word was the name of the root of the plant now called "Wapato" by the whites (Sagititaria Sagittifolia) which was used as a food by the Indians. Since the white settlement of the country the meaning has changed to cover the potato or any other potato-like bulb (such as dahlia, etc.). Common usage has made "potato" the article meant when "wapato" is used (though the word sounds more "waugh-paytoh" with accent on first syllable) alone nowadays, and when the real "wapato" is meant it is called "Siawash wapato" to distinguish it from common potato. This use is making the original meaning obsolete and it will be lost before long and probably the word itself will change to "waugh-pay-toh" unless the original meaning is preserved as it should be.

WARM.

WAUM.

Corruption of English "warm" pronounced in Indian patois.

 Means same as English "warm." Degree of "warm" is fixed by using other words as prefix or to follow "waum." Examples:  "Waum," "Warm." "Hyas waum," "Quite warm." "Delate waum," "Very warm." "Hiyu delate waum," "Hot." "Halo waum," "No-warm." "Tenas waum," "A little warm." "Klosh sun, hiyu waum," "A nice warm day." "Hi i i i yu dela a a a te waum, kahkwa piah," "A very-great-real-hot-fire!"

TALK      SPEECH      TO TALK      VOCAL UTTERANCE OF ANY KIND BY ANY ONE AT ANY TIME.

WAWA.

A as in father (both syllables); accent first syllable; pronounce Wah-wah with slight h sound at end of each syllable.

 "Wawa" is the Chinook speech-symbol and means "talk" of any kind, any place, any time, by any one. It is always qualified by some word that fixes the time, place, subject or some other particular meaning concerning the "talk" spoken of.

 Examples:  "Klosh wawa," "Good talk" (well spoken). "Comtox Chinook wawa?" "(Do you) understand Chinook talk?" "Mox wawa," "Double talk" (a lie). "Mika wawa copo Chim," "You tell Jim," "Halo wawa mika," "I will not tell." (Literally: "No talk, me." "Heehee wawa mika wawa," "Foolish talk you talk." "Nika mamook tízum pepah wawa," "You make paper-talk" (you write it down on paper). "Halo nika comtox mika wawa," "No I understand your talk"

AGAIN      OVER AGAIN.

WEGHT.

E as in get; pronounce as written.

 Means "again," "repeated," etc. Very little used any more. Nearly obsolete.

WIND.

WIND.

 Same as English; means same; used same. Also used to mean same as English "breath," or "breathe" when used thus: "Halo wind," "I am out of wind" (no breath left); "I am short-winded" (hard to breathe), etc.

HE      HIM      HER      IT      HIS.

(THE THIRD PERSON SINGULAR.)

YAHKA.

A as in father in both syllables; accent  yah  and pronounce Yah-kah. (The "a" in this word has near the broad "a" of YAW but not quite    about halfway between YAH and YAW is about as near as it can be placed in English, though YAH will be understood easily.)

 "Yahka" is usually used in Chinook to mean "he" or "him" or "his" in the same sense as English, but it is frequently used also in the Indian sense of sentence construction which places the subject and, then says "it" is so and so, thus: "Okeoke canim, yahka iskum sail." (Literally: "That canoe, it has a sail." In this case "yahka" means "it" (that canoe). "Okeoke man yahka pelton," "That man, he (is) crazy," is another instance of the same construction, and this method is commonly used in all Indian languages. More often, however, "yahka" means "he," "him." "her," or "his" ("belongs-to-him") and is used in conversation very frequently to cover all of these meanings in the usual elastic way that all Chinook words are used more or less.

 Examples:  "Yahka man," "Him" (that-man in particular). "Mesika chaco copo yahka canim," "We came in him (that) canoe." "Delate klosh yahka muckamuck," "Very good him (that) food." "Yahka wawa copo nika," "He told me" or "spoke-to-me." "Yahka klootchman copo nika," "She (that woman) is my wife." "Klosh spose yahka man wawa Chim," "Good, if he (that man) tells (or will tell) Jim." "Yahka delate klosh man; yahka skookum mamook," "He (is a) very good man; he (is a) strong worker."

STOMACH.

YAKWAHTIN.

A as in father, both syllables; i as in tin; accent  kwah  and pronounce Yah-kwah tin.

 Means "stomach," "belly" or "intestines," depending on use.

 Examples:  "Tenas man yahka iskum sick copo yakwahtin," "This little boy he get sick inside (bellyache)." "Mamook mahsh yakwahtin copo mowitch pe lolo itlwillie," "Take the entrails out of the deer and bring the meat." (Not very much used any more.)

A TALE.

YIEM.

 Pronounce almost Iem.

 Means a story or tale. So very little used nowadays as to be practically obsolete, though it should be preserved as it is good Chinook.

HERE OR THERE.

YOWAH.

Ow together as in how; a as in father; accent  yow  and pronounce Yow wah.

 "Yowah" means either "here," "this place," or "there," "that place." The meaning is brought out by nod or gesture indicating "over yonder" or "here alongside" as the case may demand. Without the gesture it is used to follow any combination of words indicating place as "over-the-mountains there is," etc. Or "The-paddle, here it is," etc. More often it is used with the gesture to indicate place, however.

 Examples:  "Mika chaco yowah," (with gesture indicating "here by me") "You come here." "Mika klatawa yowah" (with gesture indicating some particular place over yonder), "You go there." "Enati yahka lamountín, mesika klatawa yowah," "Over him (the mountain) we will go there." "Mika mitlite yowah, nah?" "You live there, yes?" (Idea: "Do you live there?") "Halo, nika mitlite yowah," "No, I live here" (gesture to indicate place in both of the last sentences).

 Note: "Yukwah" is used to indicate "here" also but it is not common. The usual word is "yowah" for either "here" or "there" and the gesture is used with it to indicate which place is meant.

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