INTRODUCTION
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In offering the present work to the public, it is the author’s hope to supply, with respect to other dictionaries of the Chinook Jargon, a desideratum hitherto unsupplied in the fifty or more editions of small vocabularies issued during a period of seventy years.

It has been the aim to give the origin and derivation of every word treated, whenever such is known, and to record under each every authoritative reference thereto. Also a reference to the authority is noted.

With regard to the spelling, it is believed that a sufficient number of forms is recorded to enable the student to identify practically every word, as well as to trace the origin of many words of undetermined derivation.

A valuable feature is the index to useful words in the main vocabulary. Another feature worth mention is the supplemental vocabulary of about two hundred uncommon words, which are of such limited use as to preclude a necessity for their appearance in the main vocabulary. One of the best features, perhaps, is the Guide to Pronunciation, with the Key to the Symbols. This pronouncing vocabulary records two hundred and seventy-five words, employing the diacritically marked letters, and is the work of the late Myron Eells, than whom no higher authority ever lived.

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“The origin of this Jargon, a conventional language similar to the Lingua Franca of the Mediterranean, the Negro-English-Dutch of Surinam, the Pigeon English of China, and several other mixed tongues, dates back to the fur droguers of the last century. Those mariners whose enterprise in the fifteen years preceding 1800, explored the intricacies of the northwest coast of America, picked up at their general rendezvous, Nootka Sound, various native words useful in barter, and thence transplanted them, with additions from the English, to the shores of Oregon. Even before their day, the coasting trade and warlike expeditions of the northern tribes, themselves a seafaring race, had opened up a partial understanding of each other’s speech; for when, in 1792, Vancouver’s officers visited Gray’s Harbor, they found that the natives, though speaking a different language, understood many words of the Nootka.

“On the arrival of Lewis and Clarke at the mouth of the Columbia, in 1806, the new language, from the sentences given by them, had evidently attained some form. It was with the arrival of Astor’s party, however, that the Jargon received its principal impulse. Many more words of English were then brought in, and for the first time the French, or rather the Canadian and Missouri patois of the French, were introduced. The principal seat of the company being at Astoria, not only a large addition of Chinook words was made, but a considerable number was taken from the Chihalis, who immediately bordered the tribe on the north,—each owning a portion of Shoalwater Bay. The words adopted from the several languages were, naturally enough, those most easily uttered by all, except, of course, that objects new to the natives found names in French or English, and such modifications were made in pronunciation as suited tongues accustomed to different sounds. Thus the gutturals of the Indians were softened or dropped; and the f and r of the English and French, to them unpronounceable, were modified into p and l. Grammatical forms were reduced to their simplest expression, and variations in mood and tense conveyed only by adverbs or by the context. The language continued to receive additions, and assumed a more distinct and settled meaning, under the Northwest and Hudson’s Bay companies, who succeeded Astor’s party, as well as through the American settlers in Oregon. Its advantage was soon perceived by the Indians, and the Jargon became to some extent a means of communication between natives of different speech, as well as between them and the whites. It was even used as such between Americans and Canadians. It was at first most in vogue upon the lower Columbia and the Willamette, whence it spread to Puget Sound, and with the extension of trade, found its way far up the coast, as well as the Columbia and Fraser rivers; and there are now few tribes between the 42nd and 57th parallels of latitude in which there are not to be found interpreters through its medium. Its prevalence and easy acquisition, while of vast convenience to traders and settlers, has tended greatly to hinder the acquirement of the original Indian languages; so much so, that except by a few missionaries and pioneers, hardly one of them is spoken or understood by white men in all Oregon and Washington Territory. Notwithstanding its apparent poverty in number of words, and the absence of grammatical forms, it possesses much more flexibility and power of expression than might be imagined, and really serves almost every purpose of ordinary intercourse.

“The number of words constituting the Jargon proper has been variously stated. Many formerly employed have become in great measure obsolete, while others have been locally introduced. Thus, at the Dalles of the Columbia, various terms are common which would not be intelligible at Astoria or on Puget Sound. In making the following selection, I have included all those which, on reference to a number of vocabularies, I have found current at any of these places, rejecting, on the other hand, such as individuals, partially acquainted with the native languages, have employed for their own convenience.”—George Gibbs, in “A Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon,” prepared from materials collected by himself during a residence of twelve years on the Northwest Coast of North America.

“CHINOOK.

“The ‘Trade Language,’ which came afterwards to be known as the ‘Chinook Jargon,’ grew into existence. As finally developed, it has become really an ‘international speech’ widely diffused among the fifty tribes of Oregon, Washington, British Columbia and Alaska, and of inestimable service, not only to commerce, but to science, to missionary efforts, and to the convenience of travelers.   *   *   *   The British and American trading ships first appeared on the northwest coast during the closing years of the last (eighteenth) century. The great number of languages spoken by the native tribes proved to be a serious hindrance to their business.   *   *   *   Unfortunately, all these languages—the Nootka, Nisqually, Chinook, Chihailish, and others—were alike harsh in pronunciation, complex in structure, and each spoken over a very limited space. But, as the harbor of Nootka was at that time the headquarters or chief emporium of the trade, it was necessarily the case that some words of the dialect there spoken became known to the traders, and the Indians, on the other hand, were made familiar with a few English words. These, with the assistance of signs, were sufficient for the slight intercourse that was then maintained. Afterwards the traders began to frequent the Columbia River, and naturally attempted to communicate with the natives there by means of the words with which they had found intelligible at Nootka. The Chinooks, who are quick in catching sounds, soon acquired these words, both Nootka and English, and we find that they were in use among them as early as the visit of Lewis and Clark in 1804. But when, at a later period, the white traders of Astor’s expeditions, and from other quarters, made permanent establishments in Oregon, it was soon found that the scanty list of nouns, verbs, and adjectives then in use was not sufficient for the more constant and general intercourse which began to take place. A real language, complete in all its parts, however limited in extent, was required; and it was found by drawing upon the Chinook for such words as were requisite, in order to add to the skeleton which they had already possessed the sinews and tendons, the connecting ligaments, as it were, of a speech. These consisted of the numerals (the ten digits and the word for hundred), twelve pronouns (I, thou, he, we, ye, they, this, other, all, both, who, what), and about twenty adverbs and prepositions (such as now, then, formerly, soon, across, ashore, offshore, inland, above, below, to, with, etc.). Having appropriated these and a few other words of the same tongue, the Trade Language—or, as it now began to be styled, ‘the Jargon’—assumed a regular shape, and became of great service as a means of general intercourse. But the new idiom received additions from other sources. The Canadian voyageurs, as they are called, who enlisted in the service of the American and British fur companies, were brought more closely in contact with the Indians than any others of the foreigners. They did not merely trade, they traveled, hunted, ate, and, in short, lived with them on terms of familiarity. The consequence was that several words of the French language were added to the slender stock of the Jargon. Eight or ten words were made by what grammarians term onomatopoeia,—that is, were formed by rude attempts to imitate sound, and are therefore the sole and original property of the Jargon. All the words thus combined in this singularly constructed language, at that stage of its existence, were found to number, according to my computation, about two hundred and fifty. Of these, eighteen were of Nootka origin, forty-one were English, thirty-four French, one hundred and eleven Chinook, ten formed by onomatopoeia, and some thirty-eight were of doubtful derivation, though probably for the most part either Chinook or Nootkan. But as might be expected, the language continued to develop. Its grammar, such as it was, remained the same, but its Lexicon drew contributions from all the various sources which have been named, and from some others. In 1863, seventeen years after my list was published, the Smithsonian Institution put forth a ‘Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon,’ prepared by the late George Gibbs, a thoroughly competent investigator. His collection comprised nearly five hundred words. Those of Chinook origin had almost doubled, being computed at two hundred and twenty-one. The French had more than doubled, and comprised now ninety-four words. The English terms were sixty-seven. The great Salish or ‘Flathead’ stock, with whose tribes, next to the Chinook, the Oregon traders had the largest relations, furnished thirty-nine words. The Nootka, in its various dialects, now yielded twenty-four. The others, about forty, were due to the imitation of natural sounds, or were of casual or undetermined derivation. There can be no doubt that it will remain a living and useful language so long as the native tribes continue to speak their own dialects. Rude and formless as it is, the spontaneous product of the commercial needs of mingled races, it has been the source of great and varied benefits. It may well serve, if not as a model, at least as a finger-post to direct us to some higher invention for subserving the larger uses of an advanced civilization. Viewed in this light, and also as presenting one of the most curious specimens of a ‘mixed language’ which philologists have had the opportunity of analyzing, the Jargon seems to merit a somewhat careful study.”—Horatio Hale.

Another View.—“The Chinook Jargon was invented by the Hudson Bay Company traders, who were mostly French-Canadians. Having to trade with the numerous tribes inhabiting the countries west of the Rocky Mountains, it was necessary to have a language understood by all. Hence, the idea of composing the Chinook Jargon. Fort Vancouver being the principal post, the traders of the twenty-nine forts belonging to the company, on the western slope, and the Indians from every part of that immense country, had to come to Vancouver for the trading season. They used to learn the Chinook, and then teach it to others. In this manner it became universally known. The two first missionaries to Oregon, Rev. F. N. Blanchet, V. G., and his worthy companion, Rev. Mod. Demers, arrived from Canada to Vancouver on the 24th of November, 1838. They had to instruct numerous tribes of Indians, and the wives and children of the whites, who spoke only the Chinook. The two missionaries set to work to learn it, and in a few weeks Father Demers had mastered it, and began to preach. He composed a vocabulary which was very useful to other missionaries. He composed several canticles which the Indians learned and sang with taste and delight. He also translated all the Christian prayers in the same language. Such is the origin of the Chinook Jargon, which enabled the two first missionaries in the country to do a great deal of good among the Indians and halfbreeds.”—Rev. L. N. St. Onge.

Judge Swan’s Opinion: “This Jargon is composed of Chinook, French and English languages, and is supposed by many to have been formed by the Hudson Bay Company for trading purposes. Such, however, is not the fact. There have been constant additions to the Jargon since the advent of the Hudson Bay Company, for many of the words now in general use in this language are of French and English origin, but I think that, among the Coast Indians in particular, the Indian part of the language has been in use for years. The first mention I have seen made of this Jargon is in Meares’ voyages in 1788, where in giving an account of a chief named Callicum, who hurt his leg while climbing on board ship, and then sucked the blood from the wound, Meares states he ‘licked his lips, and, patting his belly, exclaimed, cloosh, cloosh, or good, good.’

Cloosh, or klose, or close, are all the same, and mean good. The different manner in which words are spelled is no evidence of a difference of meaning, for no two writers of Indian words fully agree as to the proper method of spelling. (Kloshe is spelled in the following ways: Close, closche, clouch, klosche, klose, klosh, kloosh, tloos, tlosh, tlush, etc.—Editor.) Still later than this, in 1803, Jewett, in his narrative of the ship Boston, at Nootka, gives a vocabulary of the words in common use among the Nootkans.    *   *    ‘It is a language confined wholly, I believe, to our Northwestern possessions west of the Rocky Mountains. It originated in the roving, trading spirit of the tribes, and has been added to and increased since the introduction of the whites among them.’”—The Northwest Coast.

ABBREVIATIONS AND EXPLANATORY NOTES.

Adj. Adjective. “The adjective precedes the noun, as in English and Chinook; as, lasway hakatschum, silk handkerchief; mesahchie tilikum, bad people.”—Hale.

Adv. Adverb. “The adverb usually precedes the adjective or verb which it qualifies, though it may sometimes follow the latter.”—Hale.

Belbella. Bellabella. “The popular name of an important Kwakiutl tribe living on Milbank Sd., Brit. Col. The language spoken by this tribe is a peculiar dialect of Kwakiutl, called Heiltsuk from the native name of the Bellabella. When voyagers first began frequenting the N. Pacific Coast Milbank Id. was often visited, and its inhabitants were therefore among the first to be modified by European contact.”—Hodge. See Olallie.

(C). Chinookan family of languages. In 1841 the number of Chinook words in the Jargon numbered 111; in 1863, 221; in 1894, 198, the number given in this dictionary. The letters C., E., F., N. and S. refer to the derivation of words, and signify Chinook, English, French, Nootka, and English. See Chinook.

(C. & E.) Chinook and English. The letters C. & E. refer to the derivation of the word.

(Can. Fr.) Canadian French. The Canadian voyageurs, as they are called, were more closely in contact with the Indians than any others of the foreigners, from 1810 to 1855. See, bread, flour, overcoat, hat, axe, pipe, mill, table, box, head, mouth, tongue, teeth, neck, hand, foot, run, sing, dance, etc. When the Hudson’s Bay Company removed from Oregon and Washington these Canadians also largely left, so a large share of these words of French origin have been dropped.

Cathlamet. A Chinookan tribe formerly residing on the south bank of Columbia river, near its mouth, in Oregon. They adjoined the Clatsop. As a dialect, Cathlamet was spoken by a number of Chinookan tribes on both sides of the Columbia, extending up the river as far as Rainier. It is regarded as belonging to the upper Chinook division of the family.—Hodge. See Skwis-kwis.

Chihalis. Chehalis. A collective name for several Salishan tribes on Chehalis river and its affluents, and on Grays Harbor, Wash. By many writers they are divided into Upper Chehalis, dwelling above Satsop river, and the Lower Chehalis, from that point down. This dictionary gives 36 words of Chehalis origin. See Elip, Moosum, etc.

Chinook (from Tsinuk, their Chehalis name). The Chinook were first described by Lewis and Clark in 1805, though they had been known to traders for at least 12 years previously. From their proximity to Astoria and their intimate relations with the early traders, the Chinook soon became well known, and their language formed the basis for the widely spread Chinook Jargon. Linguistically they were divided into two groups: (1) Lower Chinook, comprising two slightly different dialects, the Chinook proper, and the Clatsop; (2) Upper Chinook, which included all the rest of the tribes, though with numerous slight dialectic differences. The dialects of the Lower Chinook are now practically extinct. Upper Chinook is still spoken by considerable numbers. See Cathlamet, Clatsop, Wasco.

Chippeway. Chippewa. One of the largest tribes north of Mexico, whose range was formerly along both shores of Lake Huron and L. Superior, extending across Minnesota to Turtle Mts., N. Dakota. See Tatoosh.

Clallam. A Salish tribe living on the south side of Puget Sound, Wash., formerly extending from Port Discovery to Hoko river, being bounded at each end by the Chimakum and Makah. Subsequently they occupied Chimakum territory and established a village at Port Townsend.—Hodge. See Toluks.

Clatsop. A Chinookan tribe. The Clatsop is merely a dialect of the Chinook. The language is now practically extinct.

Clayoquot. A Nootka tribe living on Meares Id., and Torfino inlet, Clayoquot Sd., Vancouver Id. See Chako, Kokshut, Kumtuks.

Conj. Conjunction. “Only two conjunctions, properly speaking, are found in the language, pe and spose.”—Hale.

Cree. An important Algonquian tribe of British America. The Cree are closely related, linguistically and otherwise, to the Chippewa. They were friendly from their first intercourse with the English and the French and the Hudson Bay Co. See Mitass, Moosmoos, Siskiyou.

Ex. Example.

(E). English. “The words of English origin numbered in 1841, 41; in 1863, 67, and in 1904, 570. Many words of French and Indian origin have been dropped. The English words are used both by Indians and whites when they talk Chinook, and so have become a part of the language.”—Eells.

(F). French. In 1841, 34 words of French origin were in use, in 1863, 94 words, and in 1894, 153 words. For words of French origin, see letter L. About thirty words are in use now, and these will soon be dropped, as they are seldom used, except by the old folks.

Interj. Interjection. Of these there are sixteen words and two phrases.

(J). Jargon. Words marked J are considered to be the peculiar property of the Jargon, as having been formed either in imitation of sounds or by some casual invention.—Hale. See Onoma.

Kalapuya. Kalapooian Family. A group of tribes formerly occupying the valley of Willamette river, N. W. Oregon, and speaking a distinct stock language.

Klaokwat. See Clayoquot.

Klikatat. Klikitat. A Shahaptian tribe whose former seat was at the head waters of the Cowlitz, Lewis, White Salmon, and Klickitat rivers, north of Columbia river, in Klickitat and Skamania counties, Wash. Their eastern neighbors were the Yakima, who speak a closely related language, and on the west they were met by various Salishan and Chinookan tribes. They were enterprising traders, widely known as intermediaries between the Coast tribes and those living east of the Cascade range. The Topenish are probably their nearest relatives.—Hodge. See Moosmoos, Nawitka, Hoolhool.

Lummi. A Salish tribe on and inland from Bellingham Bay, N. W. Wash. The Lummi are now under the jurisdiction of the Tulalip school superintendent, Washington. See Kullaghan.

Makah. The southernmost tribe of the Wakashan stock, the only one within the United States. They belong to the Nootka branch. By treaty of Neah Bay, Wash., Jan. 31, 1855, the Makah ceded all their lands at the mouth of the Strait of Juan de Fuca except the immediate area including Cape Flattery. The Ozette reservation was established by order of April 12, 1893.—Hodge. See Kloshe, Mahkook.

n. Noun. “There are far more nouns in the language than there are words in any other part of speech or even in all the other parts combined.”—Eells.

(N). The letter N. refers to the derivation of the word, and signifies Nootka. Nootka is the conventional generic name of all the tribes in Vancouver and opposite coast, many of whom speak totally different languages.—Keane.

(N. & E.). The letters N. & E. refer to the derivation of the word, and signify Nootka and English.

Nisqually. “A Puget Sound (Columbian) nation, with many sub-tribes whose names end mostly in mish, and will thus be recognized without requiring to be indexed.”—Keane.

Nittinat. The Tokwaht, Nittinat and Makah quoted in the dictionary are dialects of the Nootka (Ahts), the generic name of most of the tribes on the west coast of Vancouver Island. All speak dialects of the same language. See Klatawa, Mahkook, Mowitsh, Peshak, Wawa, Winapie.

Onoma. Onomatopoeia. Eight or ten words were made by what grammarians term onomatopoeia,—that is, were formed by a rude attempt to imitate sound, and are therefore the sole and original property of the Jargon. Considering its mode of formation, one is rather surprised that the number of these words is not greater.—Hale. See Liplip, Tintin, Poo, Tiktik, Tumtum, Tumwata, Mahsh, Klak, etc.

prep. Preposition. There are nine words and three phrases which are used as prepositions. The principal words are kopa saghalie, over; keekwulee, under; and kunamokst, with; kopa is, however, used more than all the others, as it has a great variety of meanings, which can only be known by the connection, some of which are entirely opposite to each other.

pron. Pronoun. The pronouns are ten in number in the words and seven in the phrases, nearly all the latter being formed by the addition of self to the personal pronouns, as mika self, etc.

Quaere u. d. Unknown or of undetermined derivation. Unmarked words are of doubtful origin.

(S). Salish. “Salishan tribes held the entire northwestern part of Washington, including the whole of the Puget Sound region, except only the Macaw territory about Cape Flattery, and two insignificant spots, one near Port Townsend, the other on the Pacific coast to the south of Cape Flattery, which were occupied by Chimakuan tribes.”—Pilling.

Tokwaht. Merely a dialect of the Nootka.

Twana. A Puget Sound tribe, formerly Twana, but later known as Skokomish; west side Hood’s Canal to the Olympics, from Skokomish river on the south to Quilcene, near Port Townsend, on the north.

v. Verb. Verbs come third in number in the words, being exceeded by nouns and adjectives. and second in phrases, and second in both combined. The word mamook placed before various other words forms 209 of these phrases.

Wasco. A Sahaptin (Columbia) tribe, between the Rocky Mountains and the John Day river.

Yakama. The Yakima and Klikitat are dialects of one of the Sahaptin languages.

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BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES.

Allen. Ten Years in Oregon. Ithaca. 1848; 1850; Thrilling adventures, N. Y. 1859.

Armstrong. Oregon. Chicago, 1857.

Bancroft. The Native Races, vol. 3, pp. 556-557, 631-635. S. F., 1882.

Blanchet. Dictionary. McCormick, Portland, 1856; 1862; 1868; 1873; 1878; 1879.

Boas. Chinook Jargon Songs, in Jl. Am. Folk-lore, vol. 1, 1888.

Bolduc. Mission de la Colombie. Quebec, 1843.

Buchanan. Elementary lessons in the Chinook Jargon as used by the Indians of Puget Sound. (Mss.) Tulalip, 1900.

Chamberlain. Words of Algonkian origin in the Chinook Jargon, in Science, vol. 18, 1891.

Charency. Review of Horatio Hale’s “International Idiom,” in Le Museon, vol. 10, 1891.

Clough. On the existence of mixed languages. London, 1876.

Cook. A voyage to the Pacific Oceon, vol. 2, pp. 335-336; vol. 3, pp. 540-546. London, 1785.

Coomes. Dictionary. Seattle, 1891.

Cox. Adventures on the Columbia River, vol. 2, p. 134. London, 1831. The Columbia River. London, 1832 (2 vols). Adventures on the Columbia River. N. Y., 1832.

Crane. The Chinook Jargon; a review of Hale, in Brighton (England) Herald, no. 4883, p. 4, July 12, 1890.

Demers. Definitio Dogmatis Immaculatae Conceptionis Beatissimae. (The Dogma is first given in Latin, followed by the translation into the Chinook Jargon.) Typis Joannis Mariae Shea. Neo Eboracensis. 1860.

Demers, Blanchet, and St. Onge. Dictionary, Catechism, Prayers and Hymns. Montreal, 1871.

Dictionary of Indian Tongues  .  .  .  Tsimpsean, Hydah, and Chinook Jargon. Victoria, 1862; 1865.

Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. (For the most part a reprint, with omissions, of Gibbs-Pilling.) Victoria, 1871; 1877; 1883; 1887; 1889, etc., to 1908.

Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. Olympia, 1873.

Dunn. History of the Oregon Territory. London, 1844; 1846.

Durien. Bible History  .  .  .  translated into the Chinook Jargon. Benziger, N. Y., Cincinnati, Chicago, and Kamloops, B. C., 1893.

Eells. Manuscript Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon, 5 vols. folio. Note from Eells’ Introduction: “A number of dictionaries have been published in the Chinook Jargon language, and it may seem superfluous to write another; still thus far all of them are small and are based on the language as it was forty or fifty years ago. Gibbs’ Dictionary was for many years by far the best, and is yet in many respects, as it gives the origin of nearly all the words and much other valuable information, but it was written nearly forty years ago. I have used it very much in preparing this work. Hale’s Trade Language of Oregon or Chinook Jargon is recent and is excellent, especially in its Introductory part; far better than any which preceded it, but that excellent man and scholar has labored under the disadvantage of not having mingled much with those who have used the language for about fifty years, and so has been unable to note a great share of the changes which have taken place. The dictionaries of Gill, Hibben, Tate, Lowman and Hanford and Good are all small; are in as condensed form as possible, being intended for pocket use for travellers, traders and learners, and in this way have done good work for what they were intended. The two latter, however, only have the Chinook-English part. The dictionary of Durieu is very meager, while that of Demers and St. Onge is out of print, and both are intended rather more for use by the Catholics than by the public.  .  .  .  Having used it (Jargon) for eighteen years, having talked in it, sung in it, prayed and preached in it, translated considerable into it, and thought in it, I thought I knew a little about the language, but when I began to write this dictionary I found that there was very much which I did not know about it, but which I wished to know in order to make this dictionary as perfect as it should be. This is especially so in regard to the pronunciation of words which are not used on Puget Sound, the introduction of new words, and the marking of those which are obsolete. In preparing these pages, I have tried to note the following items,—the different ways of spelling each word with the authority for each, the proper pronunciation, the origin, part of speech, meaning, the place where it is used, if used at all, a sentence or more to show the use of a large share of the words, and the phrases which are derived from a combination of words, which answer to a single word in English.”—Skokomish, Union City, March, 1893.

Eells. How Languages Grow, in Advance, March 25, and July 8, 1875,—relates wholly to the Chinook Jargon. Chicago, 1875. Hymns in the Chinook Jargon, Portland, 1878; 1889. The Chinook Jargon, in the Seattle Weekly Post-Intelligencer, vol. 1, no. 52, p. 4, column 8, Seattle, September 29, 1882. History of Indian Missions, Philadelphia, 1882. Ten Years of Missionary Work. Boston, 1886. The Twana, Chemakum, and Klallam Indians, in Smithsonian Institution, Annual Rept. of the Board of Regents for 1887, part 1, pp. 605-681. Washington, 1889. Aboriginal geographic names in the state of Washington, in American Anthropologist, vol. 5, pp. 27-35. Washington, 1892.

Gallatin. Hale’s Indians of N. W. America, in American Ethnological Soc. Trans., vol. 2. N. Y., 1848.

Gatschet. Indian languages of the Pacific states and territories, in Magazine of American Hist., vol. 1, pp. 145-171. N. Y., 1877.

Gibbs. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections (161), A Dictionary of the Chinook Jargon. Washington, 1863. N. Y., Cramoisy press, 1863.

Gill. Dictionary (ninth edition). Portland, 1882; 1884; 1887; 1889; 1891.

Good. Dictionary. Victoria, 1880.

Green. Extracts from the report of an exploring tour on the N. W. coast of America in 1829, in the missionary Herald, vol. 26, pp. 343-345. Boston, 1830.

Raines. The American Indian. Chicago, 1888.

Hale. United States exploring expedition, vol. 6, Philadelphia, 1846. An International Idiom. London, 1890.

Hazlitt. British Columbia and Vancouver Island. London, 1858. The Great Gold Fields of Cariboo. London, 1862.

Jewitt. A narrative of the adventures and sufferings of John R. Jewitt,—(written by Roland Alsop). Middletown, 1815. Second edition, 1815. N. Y., 1816; Middletown, 1816; Middletown, 1820; Edinburgh, 1824; Ithaca, 1849, 1851. The Captive of Nootka, by Peter Parley, Philadelphia, 1861; 1869, and various other editions.

Latham. The natural history of the varieties of man. London, 1850.

Lee and Frost. Ten years in Oregon. N. Y., 1844.

LeJeune. Practical Chinook Jargon vocabulary, Kamloops, 1886, 1892. Kamloops Wawa, a periodical in the Chinook Jargon, 1891, etc. Chinook Primer, Chinook and Shorthand, 1892.

Leland. The Chinook Jargon, in St. James Gazette, vol. 17, no. 2529, p. 6, London, July 13, 1888. An International Idiom, a review of Hale, in the Saturday Review, vol. 30, no. 1822, pp. 377-378, London, Sept. 27, 1890.

Lionnet. Vocabulary. Washington, 1853.

Macdonald. British Columbia and Vancouver’s Island. London. 1862.

Macfie. Vancouver Id. and B. C. London, 1865.

Macleod. History of the Devotion to the Blessed Virgin Mary in America. New York, 1866.

Montgomerie and De Horsey. A Few Words collected from the languages spoken by the Indians in the neighborhood of the Columbia River and Puget’s Sound. London, 1848.

Nicoll. The Chinook language or Jargon, in Popular Science Monthly, vol. 35, pp. 257-261, N. Y., 1889.

Norris. The Calumet of the Coteau. Philadelphia, 1883.

Palmer. Journal of Travels over the Rocky Mountains, Cincinnati, 1847; 1850; 1851; 1852.

Parker. Journal of an exploring tour beyond the Rocky Mountains  .  .  .  in the years 1835-’37. Ithaca, 1838; 1840; 1842; 1844; Auburn, 1846.

Phillips. Totem Tales. Chicago, several editions.

Pilling. Bibliography of the Chinookan Languages, including the Chinook Jargon. Washington, 1893. Bibliography of the Salishan Languages, Washington, 1893. Bibliography of the Wakashan Languages. Washington, 1894.

Prosch. Dictionary of the Chinook. Seattle, 1888.

Reade. Chinook versus Greek, in Montreal Gazette, vol. 119, no. 239, p. 4, October 6, 1890.

Ross. Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River. London. 1849.

Schoolcraft. Indian Tribes of the United States, vol. 5, pp. 548-551. Philadelphia, 1851-1857; Philadelphia, 1884, 2 vols.

Scouler. Observations on the Indigenous tribes of the N. W. coast of America, in Royal Geog. Soc. of London, Jour. vol. 11, pp. 215-251, London, 1841. On the Indian Tribes inhabiting the Northwest Coast of America, in Edinburgh New Philosophical Jour., vol. 41, pp. 168-192. Edinburgh, 1846. Reprinted in the Ethnological Soc. of London Jour., vol. 1, pp. 228-252, Edinburgh, n. d.

Sproat. Scenes and Studies of Savage Life. London, 1868.

Stuart. Montana as it is. New York, 1865.

Swan. The Northwest Coast; or, Three Years’ Residence in Washington Territory. New York, 1857; London, 1857.

Tate. Chinook, as spoken by the Indians of Washington Territory, British Columbia and Alaska. Victoria, 1889.

Tylor. Primitive Culture. London, 1871; Boston, 1874; New York, 1874; 1877.

Western Volapuk. A review of Hale, in the Critic, vol. 14, pp. 201-202. N. Y., 1890.

Wilson. Prehistoric Man, vol. 2, pp. 429-432. London, 1862; London, 1865, pp. 586-588; London, 1876, vol. 2, pp. 334-338.

Winthrop. The Canoe and the Saddle, adventures among the northwestern rivers and forests; and Isthmania. Boston. 1863 (various editions).

NOTES FROM GIBBS’ DICTIONARY.

Parker’s Journal, pp. 336-388; “Vocabulary of the Chenook Language, as spoken about Fort Vancouver.”

Hale’s Ethnography and Philology of the United States Exploring Expedition, pp. 636-650. A vocabulary of the “Jargon or Trade Language of Oregon,” with an essay thereon, and phrases. A partial reprint of the above, in Transactions of the American Ethnological Society, 2 vols., N. Y., 1845-1848, in vol. 2, pp. 62-70, under title of “Hale’s Indians of North West America.”

Bolduc’s “Mission de la Columbie.” The Lord’s Prayer in Jargon, “et quelques mots Tchinoucs et Sneomus.” The Snohomish is a tribe of Puget Sound. The Chinook words are merely Jargon.

Palmer’s Journal, pp. 147-152. “Words used in the Chinook Jargon.”

Ross. Adventures of the First Settlers on the Oregon or Columbia River. Ross gives a “Chinook Vocabulary,” pp. 342-348, and words of the “mixed dialect,” p. 349. His Chinook is, however, also impure.

Lee and Frost. “A short vocabulary of the Clatsop dialect.” This is likewise Jargon.

Schoolcraft. History, &c., of the Indian Tribes of the U. S. Lieut. G. P. Emmons gives a brief “Klatsop Vocabulary,” in Part 3, pp. 223-224, which is of the same character. Note 1, to article, “Philosophy of Utterance,” Part 5, pp. 548-551, a “vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon.”

Lionnet. Vocabulary. Printed by the Smithsonian Institution, for private distribution.

Swan. N. W. Coast, pp. 412-422. “A vocabulary of the Chehalis and Chenook or Jargon Languages, with the derivation of the words used in the latter.”

Winthrop. The Canoe and the Saddle, pp. 299-302. “A partial vocabulary of the Chinook Jargon.”

Dunn. History of the Oregon Territory. “A few specimens of the language of the Millbank and Chinook tribes.” Chinook tribe: 50 words and phrases, including digits. These words, as usual, are in great part “Jargon,” and belong to the Nootkan, not to the Chinook.

NOTES FROM EELLS’ MANUSCRIPT DICTIONARY.

Parker “gives 103 words and phrases.”

St. Onge “gives 787 Chinook words and phrases with no English-Chinook part.”

Lee and Frost. “In the appendix are 50 words which the authors say are in the Clatsop dialect, but which Gibbs says are in the Jargon. I think some are Clatsop, but some are undoubtedly Jargon.”

Dunn. “Thirty Chinook Jargon words and expressions.”

Swan. “In the appendix is quite a full vocabulary,—327 words. Judge Swan lived on Shoalwater Bay, Wash., near the Chehalis and Chinook Indians, and he gives quite a number of words which are given by no other writer, which he says are of Chehalis origin. Gibbs rejects many of these, because he thinks that Swan imperceptibly used them as Chinook Jargon, but that they did not properly belong to the language, but to the Chehalis. I have inserted them as being a part of the Jargon of that region at that time, as certainly many English words now in use on Puget Sound are a part of the Jargon of this time and place. The environment always affects the language.”

Gibbs. “This was by far the best dictionary at that time and will ever remain a standard authority on the language of that time. In the Chinook-English part are 490 words, and in the English-Chinook, 792.”

Winthrop. “Two hundred and sixty-one Chinook words. There is no English-Chinook part.”

Hibben. “The author’s name is not given, but it is believed to be Lionnet. It gives very nearly the same words as Gibbs in both parts.”

Good. “It has no Chinook-English part. In the English-Chinook he gives 825 words.”

Durieu. “431 Chinook Jargon words. No English-Chinook part.”

Tate. “It follows Gibbs very closely.”

Hale. “473 Chinook Jargon words; 634 in the English-Chinook part.”

Gill. “This with its predecessors has been the standard for Oregon for over thirty years. It was first published by S. J. McCormick, and its latest reviser is Rev. W. C. Chatten. In the Chinook-English part are 560 words, and in the English-Chinook, 1378.”

Coomes. [L. & H.] “It follows Gill very closely in its Chinook-English part and has no English-Chinook part.”

Boas. “Gives a short vocabulary of 75 words in the Journal of American Folk Lore, pp. 225-226, obtained at Victoria, B. C., and 24 words, obtained at Shoalwater Bay, Wash.,—in Science, March 4, 1892, p. 129. A few words are also given by authority of Dr. W. C. McKay, late of Pendleton, Oregon.”

“A comparison of these dictionaries shows Gibbs to be the most scientific and thorough in all things except the spelling. Hibben and Tate agree with it very closely. Hale is a little more independent, but gives the best grammar and literature of all. Gill’s is the fullest, and is still more independent. Lowman and Hanford’s (Coomes) is almost exactly like the Chinook-English part of Gill’s.

“St. Onge’s is entirely independent of all the others, and the most scientific in the spelling; Durieu’s is meagre, but more nearly like St. Onge’s than any other in regard to spelling. Good’s is the most modern, omitting many obsolete words, and introducing many new ones, but his spelling is at fault, as he often spells the same words in different ways, even three or four ways. The rest of the dictionaries are local and small, but valuable because gathered so early.”

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