THE CHINOOK JARGON
 
AND HOW TO USE IT.
__________

A LEXICON

A

Ahn´-kut-tie, or Ah´n-kut-te, adv. (C) (Chinook,-ankutti.) Formerly; before now; long ago; anciently; ago. With the accent prolonged on the first syllable, a very long time ago; anciently. The longer the first syllable is held, the longer the time expressed. Example: Hyas anhkuttie,—a very long time ago. Tenas ahnkuttie,—a little while ago. Kunjih laly ahnkuttie? how long ago? Tahtlum sun ahnkuttie,—ten days ago. Siah ahnkuttie,—very ancient,—lit., far ago. A great deal is expressed by the mere stress of the voice; hyas—dwelling long on the last syllable—means exceedingly great; hyak, very quick; hiyu, a great many; tenas, very small, &c. Delate ahnkuttie,—very long ago. "In Chinook the verb is absolutely inflexible, it never changes its form for mood, tense or anything else; these are always indicated by the agglutination of a word indicating the mood, tense, etc. The idea of tense is most simple and rudimentary, that is, past, present and future; ahnkuttie, alta, alki."—Buchanan.

Note—"A Chinook word is elastic and expresses a broad and general idea rather than one altogether specific, hence the extreme elasticity of the Chinook jargon. Specific ideas must be expressed by qualifiers or modifiers added to the word, as will be readily seen in practice. Each word is a tool whose general uses and whose special uses must be mastered before successful work can be done or satisfactory progress be made."—Buchanan. Ex.: Anhkuttie mama,—a grandmother. Ahnkuttie papa,—a grandfather; an ancestor; forefather; progenitor. Ahnkuttie tillikums,—ancestors; ancient people. Ahnkuttie laly,—long ago.

"Time: Present, Past and Future. In indicating time in the Chinook jargon the verb does not change its form at all; it is absolutely inflexible as far as change of the word form is concerned, and the idea of time is added by adding a word to indicate that—thus alki (by and by, after awhile, in the future) to indicate future time; ahncutty (in the past, some time ago, a long time ago, once upon a time) to indicate past time; and alta (now) to indicate present time where it is important to emphasize the fact that present time and only present time is indicated. Ordinarily if the time is omitted or not specified it is understood to be present time, naturally. Intensity of meaning or duration of time may also be indicated by prolongation of the sounding of a word, thus: laly (time)—la-a-a-aly (a long time). This is based upon an instinctive principle common to all tongues, just as we in English phonetically indicate prolongation of time or extension in space or intensity of feeling by means of the intonation. So we say ‘a long time’ and ‘a lo-o-o-o-ng time.’"—Buchanan.

Note—"A thorough knowledge of a few dozen words will give one sufficient material with which, after actual practice, to carry on ordinary conversations. In practice the sentences are built up by agglutination or association of words, just as a child builds houses and various other wonderful structures from its blocks. In so doing there is always a very wide sphere for the exercise of ingenuity on the part of the speaker, and upon this, in a measure, depends the skill with which he may handle Chinook and convey his thoughts therein. The jargon is essentially a spoken and not a written tongue—it is very much alive. Spelling. There are no hard and fast rules for the spelling of words, and everyone in writing Chinook follows the dictates of his own judgment in the fabrication of phonetic equivalents, which are at best only approximations."—Buchanan.

"It may not at first be easy to comprehend how a language composed of so few words, thus inartificially combined, can be extensively used as the sole medium of communication among many thousand individuals.  .  .  .  But it is in the faculty of combining and compounding its simple vocables—a power which it doubtless derives, in some degree, from its connection with the Indian tongues—that the jargon has its capacity for expression almost indefinitely extended. Three or four hundred words may be learned without difficulty in a week or two, and a very short time will make the learner familiar with their ordinary use and construction. He will then have no difficulty in understanding the numerous compounds which, if they had been simple words, would have cost him much additional labour."—Hale.

Al´-ki, adv. (C) (Chinook,-alekh.) In the future; by and by; after a while; soon; presently; directly; in a little while; hold on; not so fast. "The sign of the future tense, shall or will. The days of the week, and the number of weeks, months and years are also used to designate the tenses."—Eells. Ex.: "Nika kumtuks,—I understand. Nika kumtuks alta,—I understand now. Nika kumtuks ahnkuttie,—I understood; I understood some time ago. Nika kumtuks alki,—I will understand; I will understand by and by; I will understand after a while. This indicates the manner of indicating tense, that is, indicating time."—Buchanan.

"September 25, 1851. While looking around Low and Terry concluded to locate a townsite, and with that view made a joint location on Alki Point. The Terrys being New Yorkers, first named the place New York, but afterwards changed it to Alki which all old settlers know signifies ‘by and by,’ ‘before long.’"—A. A. Denny.

Tenas alki,—in a little while. Alki nika klatawa,—I will go presently. Iskum dolla, alki pay,—to borrow. Alki nesika klatawa kopa nika boat, soon we will go in my boat.

"In general the tense of the verb is left to be inferred from the context. When it is absolutely necessary to distinguish time, certain adverbs are employed: as chee, alta, alki, ahnkuttie, okoke-sun, tomolla, tahlkie, ikt tahlkie."—Hale.

Al´-ta, or Al´tah, adv. (C) (Chinook,-altakh.) Now, at the present time. Ex.: Alta yaka chako,—now he comes. Nika skookum alta,—I am strong now. Wake alta,—not now.

Ats, n. (C) (Chinook,-ats; Yakima,-atse.) A sister; a younger sister. In the original, only when used by her brother. Ex.: Elip ats,—an older sister. Ats yaka man,—a brother-in-law. Mama or papa yaka ats, an aunt. (See kahpho.) "Sister is used on Puget Sound. Sister yaka tenas klootchman,—a niece."Boas. (The word Ats is becoming obsolete.)

B

Boat, n. (English,-idem.) A boat, as distinguished from a canoe; a skiff. Ex.: Kopa boat,—aboard. Klahanie kopa boat,—overboard.

Book, n. (English,-idem.) A book; volume; pocketbook. Example: Saghalie Tyee yaka book,—The Bible. (Literally,God, his book.) Tenas book, a pamphlet. Book yaka mamook kumtus nesika kopa illahee,—a geography. Book yaka mamook kumtuks nesika kopa kwunnum,—an arithmetic. Book yaka mamook kumtuks nesika kopa lalang,—a grammar. Book yaka mamook kumtuks nesika kopa nesika,—a physiology. Book yaka mamook kumtuks nesika kopa stone,—a geology.

Bos´-ton, n., adj. An American; American. A name derived from the hailing-place of the first trading ships to the Pacific. Example: Boston illahie,—the United States. Mika kumtuks Boston wawa?—do you understand English? Boston plie,—Protestantism. Sitkum-siwash-sitkum-Boston,—a half-breed.

By-by, adv. (E) By-and-by; after a while; sometime hence. It means a longer time in the future than alki, but like that is used for shall or will as a sign of future time. With the accent on the first syllable, prolonged, it means a very long time hence.

C

Ca-nim, n. (C) (Chinook,-ekanim.) A canoe. Ex.: Canim stick,—the cedar or wood from which canoes are usually made. Klatawa kopa caim,—to embark.

Ca-po´, n. (F) (French,-capot.) A coat.

Cha´ko, Chah´-ko, or Chahco, v. (N) (Nootka, Clayoquot,-chako; Tokwaht,-tchokwa.) To come; to approach; to be or become. "In this latter sense it forms the passive voice in connection with many other words. Often it is joined with adjectives and nouns, and forms other verbs. Yaka chako pahtlum,—he is drunk; nika chako keekwulee,—I am degraded; yaka chako stone,—it is petrified. Perhaps more properly the word in this connection to become, than to be, at least it is often so, as in the latter example the meaning would also be,—to become stone; chako rotten,—is to become rotten. Occasionally too the passive voice is shown by placing the word iskum before the main word, as, yaka iskum kow,—he is arrested."—Eells. Ex.: Nika chako kopa Poteland,—I came from Portland. Kloshe mika hyak chako,—good you come quick. Chuck chako,—the tide is rising (literally, is coming). Chuck chako pe klatawa,—the tides. Halo chako,—to linger. Wake kunjih yaka chako halo,—indellible (literally,—never will it become gone). Chako Boston,—to become an American; often said of Indians who are becoming civilized like white people. Chako delate,—to become right, true, or good. Chako delate till,—to become exhausted. Chako hyas tum tum,—to become proud. Chako huloima,—to vary; to become different. Chako kah nika nanitch,—to appear. Chako kloshe tumtum,—to love; to reform; to become friendly; to get a good heart. Chako kloshe,—to get well; to become good. Chako kunamokst,—to congregate; assemble; convene; meet; unite; join. Chako mimolouse,—to die; to become rotten; to become decayed (as potatoes or vegetables). Chako pahtlum,—to become drunk. Chako skookum,—to become strong, especially after a sickness, to show complete recovery. Chako solleks,—to become angry; to quarrel. Chako pelton,—to become foolish; to be cheated. Chako waum tumtum,—to be earnest; to become excited. Chako youtl tumtum,—to become glad; to be glad. Chako polaklie,—to become dark; night is coming. Chako oleman,—to become old. Chako halo,—to be destroyed; to disappear; to vanish; to be all gone. Chako elip hiyu,—to exceed. Chako kunamokst nika,—come with me.

Chee, adv., adj. (C) (Chinook,-t’shi.) Lately; just now; new; fresh; original; recent. Example: Chee nika ko,—I have just arrived. Hyas chee,—entirely new, very new. Chee chako,—a new comer; just arrived. Delate chee,—entirely new. Klootchman yaka chee malieh,—a bride.

Chik´-a-min, n., adj. (N) (Tokwaht,-tsikamen; Nootka,—sickaminny (Jewitt); seekemaile (Cook).) Iron; metal; metallic; steel; money; cash; mineral. Example: T’kope chikamin (white metal),—silver. Pil chikamin, or chikamin pil (yellow metal),—gold or copper. Chikamin lope,—wire; a chain. Nika hyas tikegh chikamin,—I very much wish money. Illahee kah chikamin mitlite,—mines.

Chik´-chik, Tsik´-tsik, or Tchik´-tchik, n. (J) (By onoma.) A wagon; a cart; a wheel; any wheeled vehicle. Example: Tsiktsik wayhut,—a wagon-road. Nika chako kopa chikchik,—I came in a wagon. Piah chikchik,—railroad cars. Lolo kopa chikchik,—to haul in a wagon.

Chinook. "(Chinook Indians.) These Indians formerly lived near the mouth of the Columbia river, where the Chinook Jargon language was mainly developed in its formative period, and hence more words were adopted into it from that language than any other Indian language, and so its name was given to the language. Properly speaking the Chinook language means the old Chinook, and [not] the Chinook Jargon the language described in this dictionary; but the old Chinook is about obsolete, and for the sake of brevity, Chinook wawa means in common conversation the Chinook Jargon, while the proper language of the Chinook tribe is called the Old Chinook. The Chinook land and Chinook Indians have, however, reference to the tribe as it formerly existed."—Eells.

Chinook wind. The Chinook is always a strong, steady southerly wind, never from any other point of the compass, unless it be slightly southwesterly. It is distinctly peculiar to the Northwest Pacific coast and its source is far out in the nasty storm center of the Pacific ocean, emanating from the famed Japan current, which is the source of the remarkable humidity of the North Pacific coast.

Chinook canim,—the large canoe used on Puget Sound. Chinook illahee,—the land of the Chinook Indians. Chinook tillikums,—the Chinook Indians. Chinook wawa,—the Chinook language. Example: Mika kumtux Chinook wawa? Do you understand the Chinook language?

Chitsh, n. (S) (Chehalis,—tshitsh.) A grandmother. (Gibbs, Gill, Hibben, St. Onge and Swan, give chope for grandfather; but Hale and Tate give the meaning as grandfather and chope as grandmother. Eells says, "I never heard either word used on Puget Sound." Eells gives the following: Ex.: Grandmother,—mama yaka mama; grandmama,—nitz. Papa yaka papa,—grandfather. Tenas yaka tenas klootchman,—granddaughter. Tenas yaka tenas man,—grandson. Tenas yaka tenas,—grandchild.

Chope, n. (S) (Chihalis,-tshup.) A grandfather. (Hale says, a grandmother.) See Chitsh.

Chuck, n. (N) (Nootka,-chauk (Cook), chahak,—fresh water (Jewitt); Chinook,-tltsuk (Shortess); Clatsop,-tl’chukw.) Water; a river or stream. Example: Salt chuck,—the sea; skookum chuck (powerful water),—a rapid; solleks chuck,—a rough sea; chuck chahko or kalipi,—the tide rises or falls; saghali and keekwilllie chuck,—high and low tide. Kah mitlite chuck?—where is the water? Muckamuck chuck,—to drink water. Olo kopa chuck,—thirsty.

Cly, or kely, v. (E) To cry, lament; mourning, weeping. Ex.: Cly tumtum,—to cry in the heart; to feel sorry; to repent; to mourn; to be full of grief or emotion; "more deep in feeling than sick tumtum."—Eells.

Cole, adj. (E) Cold; a year. Ex.: hyas cole,—very cold; freezing. Cole illahee,—winter. Cole snass,—hail; snow. Cole chuck,—ice; cold water. Cole sick,—ague; a cold. Cole sick-waum sick,—fever and ague. Ikt cole,—a year. Tahtlum cole,—ten years. Ikt tukamonuk cole,—a century. Kah cole chako,—north. Kah delate cole mitlite,—Arctic.

Coo´-ley, v. (F) (French,-courez, imp. of courir.) To run; go about; play; walk; travel. Example: Cooley kiuatan,—a race-horse; yahka hyas kumtuks cooley,—he can, i. e., knows how to run well. Cultus cooley,—to saunter; ramble; stroll. Hyak cooley,—to run; canter; go fast. Kopet cooley,—to halt; to stop. Mamook cooley kopa huloima lalang,—i. e.,—to make go in another language; to interpret.

Co´-sho, n. (F) (French,-cochon.) A hog; pork; pig; swine; ham; bacon. Example: Siwash cosho,—a seal; literally,—Indian pig. Dly cosho,—bacon; ham. Kloochman cosho,—a sow. Tenas cosho,—a pig. Cosho glease,—lard. Cosho itlwillie,—pork.

Court, n. (E) A court. Ex.: Haul kopa court,—to try in court. Hyas court,—supreme court. Mamook court,—to hold court. Tzum man kopa court,—the clerk of the court. Tyee kopa court,—a judge. Lolo kopa hyas court,—to appeal. Wawa kopa court,—to testify; testimony.

Cul´-tus, or Kul´tus, adj. (C) (Chinook,-kaltas.) Worthless; good for nothing; without purpose; abject, barren; bad; common; careless; defective; dissolute; filthy; foul; futile; rude; immaterial; impertinent; impolite; no matter; shabby; slippery; unmeaning; untoward; useless; paltry; worn out. "A few words," says Eells, "are very expressive, meaning so much, and expressing that meaning in so much better a way than our English words do that they have often been adopted into English in the region where the Chinook is used. Of these may be mentioned cultus,—good for nothing, with also twenty-three other meanings; kloshe, with its forty-two meanings; kloshe nanitch, with its eighteen meanings; tamahnous, sorcery, yet referring as a noun, adjective and verb, to anything supernatural, or in the spirit world between Satan on the one hand and God on the other; tumtum, mind, with its fifteen meanings; and wawa, talk, with its sixty-five meanings." Example: Cultus man,—a worthless fellow. Cultus potlatch,—a present or free gift; a benefaction. Cultus heehee,—a jest; merely laughing. Cultus nannitsh,—to look around. Cultus mitlite,—to sit idle; to do nothing. Cultus klatawa,—to stroll. Cultus eena,—a muskrat. Ques. What do you want? Ans. Cultus, i. e., nothing. Cultus kopa mika,—none of your business; nothing to you. Cultus kopa nika,—I do not care; nothing to me. Cultus potlatch tumtum,—to give advice; to advise; to counsel. Cultus wawa,—a joke; a jest; nonsense; rumor; tattle; report. Delate cultus,—no manner of use. "Cultus,—idle, aimless, worthless; also bad, in the sense of having no value, that is being useless."—Buchanan.

D

De-late´, or De-lett, adj., adv. (F) (French,-droite.) Straight; direct; without equivocation; true; truly, exactly; correct; exact; genuine; just; plain; precise; really; thorough; sincerely; surely; sincere; sure; accurate; verily; undoubted; authentic; certain; definite; definitely; erect; very; correctly. Example: Klatawa delate,—go straight. Delate wawa,—tell the truth; a fact; promise; true talk. Delate kwinnum cole ahnkuttie,—just five years ago. Delate nika sick tumtum,—I am very sorry. Okoke delate,—it is right. Wake delate,—not exactly right; imperfect. Wawa delate,—to speak the truth; to speak correctly. Delate hyas,—stupendous; immense; enormous. Delate hyas kloshe,—magnificent; majestic; very, very good. Delate kloshe,—perfect; pure, exquisite; very good. Delate kumtuks,—sure; to prove; to know certainly. Delate pahtl,—brimfull; chockfull. Delate sick tum tum,—grief; very sad. Delate tenas sun,—dawn; daybreak. Delate yaka illahie,—a native; native land. Delate yaka kumtuks,—an expert. Delate nika wawa,—I am speaking the truth.

Diaub, Deaub, Dahblo, or Yaub,—the devil. See Lejaub.

D’ly, or De-ly, ad. (E) Dry; arid; dryness. Example: Chahko dely,—to become dry. Mamook dely,—to dry. Dly tupso,—hay.

Doc´-tin, n. (E) A doctor; a physician; surgeon. Eells says, "It almost universally refers to a white man, unless some word is connected with it to qualify it." Example: Nika tikegh doctin,—I want the doctor. Siwash doctin,—an Indian doctor or conjurer. Doctin kopa letah or teeth,—a dentist. Doctin kopa seahost,—an oculist.

Dol´-la, or Tahla, n. (E) A dollar; money; cash; funds. Example: Chikamin dolla,—silver; pil dolla,—gold; sitkum dolla,—half a dollar. Dolla seahost, (silver eyes),—spectacles. Klone dolla,—three dollars. Halo nika dolla,—I have no money. Ipsoot potlatch dolla kopa tyee,—to bribe. Hiyu dolla,—rich. Kilapie dolla,—to refund. Kunjih dolla,—what price.

Dutchman, n. (English,-idem.) "A German; a Dutchman; almost any European except a Frenchman or Englishman."—Eells.

E

E´-lip, or El´-ip, adv. (S) (Chehalis,-ilip.) First; before; the superlative; beginning; prior; ahead; senior; elder; former; original. "The comparative is usually formed by prefixing the word elip to the adjective, as kloshe, good; elip kloshe, better; skookum, strong; elip skookum, stronger; hiyu, many; elip hiyu, more; tenas, small; elip tenas, smaller. The superlative is properly formed by adding the words kopa konoway, ‘than all’ to the comparative, as elip kloshe kopa konoway, better than all, i. e., the best."—Eells. "There is no such thing in Chinook as comparison by inflection of a word as is the case in English (weak, weaker, weakest for example). This is done by means of the words elip or kimtah to indicate the comparative degree (the word itself always indicating, as in English, the positive degree). Delayt added to the comparative form converts it into the superlative form. Klosh, elip klosh, delayt elip klosh. Klosh, kimtah klosh. Delayt kimtah klosh."—Buchanan. "Comparison is expressed by a periphrasis. ‘I am stronger than thou.’ would be wake mika skookum kahkwa nika; lit., ‘thou not strong as I.’ The superlative is indicated by adverbs; as hyas oleman okook canim, that canoe is the oldest; lit., ‘very old that canoe.’"—Hale. (A few other ways of spelling the word Elip: alip; ilip; ellip; ilep; ilips.) Ex.: "Elip hyas,—larger; greater; major. Elip hyas kopa konoway,—largest; greatest. Elip hiyu,—more; majority; excess. Elip hiyu kopa konoway,—most; maximum. Elip keekwilee,—lower. Elip keekwilee kopa konoway,—lowest. Elip kloshe,—better; superior; more excellent. Elip kloshe kopa konoway,—best; supreme. Elip kloshe kopa okoke,—better than that. Elip sitkum sun,—forenoon. Elip tenas,—first born; minor; less; younger. Elip tenas kopa konoway,—least; youngest. Elip saghalie,—higher; upper. Elip saghalie kopa konoway,—highest. Elip mesachie,—worse. Elip mesachie kopa konoway,—worst. Elip siah,—farther. Elip siah kopa konoway,—farthest. Elip tikegh,—to prefer; rather; choose. Elip wawa,—a preface; a prophecy. Mika klatawa elip, nika kimta,—you go first, I (will go) afterwards."—Eells. Ex.: "Elip sitkum tintin,—before half an hour. Elip sitkum sun,—before noon; forenoon. Kimtah,—after; behind. Kimtah klosh,—worse. Kimtah skookum,—less strong; not so strong. Delayt kimtah klosh,—worst. Delayt kimtah skookum,—least strong. Elip tahkum tintin,—before six o’clock. Kimtah tahkum tintin,—after six o’clock. Tahkum tintin,—six o’clock, six hours. Wake siah tahkum tintin,—almost six o’clock; not far away from six o’clock."—Buchanan.

En´-a-ti, Eneti, Eenati, or Inati, adv., prep. (C) (Chinook,-inatai.) Across; beyond; opposite to; on the other side of. Ex.: Nika tikegh klatawa enati kopa chuck,—I wish to go across the water. Yaka mitlite enati kopa city,—he lives opposite to the city.

G

Get-up, or Ket-op, v. (E) To get up; rise; risen.

Glease, n. (E) Grease; fat or oil. Example: Hiyu glease,—very fat; tootoosh glease,—butter; glease piah,—candle. See, also, Lakles.

H

Ha´h-lakl, v., adj. (C) (Chinook,-halakl.) Wide; open. Example: Mamook hahlakl la pote,—open the door; Chahko hahlakl (as of the woods),—to open out; become less dense. Mamook hahlakl,—to open.

Hak´-at-shum, n. (E) A handkerchief.

Ha´-lo, adj. (Quaere u. d. not Chinook.) Not; none; absent; no; all gone; devoid; vacant; without. Example: Ques. Halo salmon nika?—have you no fish? Ans. Halo,—none. Ques. Kah mika papa?—where is your father? Ans. Halo,—he is out. Halo wind,—breathless; dead. Halo glease,—clean. Halo iktahs,—poor; destitute; no goods. Halo mitlite,—nothing remains; empty. Halo seahost (no eyes),blind. Halo dolla,—without money. Yaka wind chako halo,—to die; he is dead (literally,—his wind is all gone). Eells says: "Generally a more sure way of speaking of death than to say ‘Yaka mimoluse,’—he is dead; because the latter sometimes means suspended animation; but the former never." Halo chako,—to linger; not to come. Halo delate kumtuks,—to be in doubt; to be obscure. Halo huloima,—ultimate; nothing different. Halo hyas mahkook,—cheap; not very dear. Halo iktas,—nothing. Halo kah,—nowhere. Halo kumtuks,—to misunderstand; not to know. Halo nika kwass kopa yaka (literally,—I am not afraid of him),—He is reliable. Halo nika tikegh,—I don’t want.

Note: (Halo) A negative. It means much the same as wake. Probably properly wake means no, and halo all gone, but on Puget Sound halo is used for no, the same as wake is in Oregon and other localities. Custom uses halo in some combinations and wake in others, and both in some. On Puget Sound, wake kloshe is proper. The indefinite pronouns are kunamoxt,—both; halo,—none; konoway,—all; hiyu,—much or many; tenas,—few or little; huloima,—other.

Haul, v. (E) (English,-idem.) To haul or pull; draw; bring; dig; pick; drag; subtract; tow; attract; extract. Used with the active verb mamook; as, mamook haul. Example: Mamook haul wapato,—to dig potatoes. Mamook haul tenas man kopa school,—to bring the boy to school. Skookum mamook haul,—must. Mamook haul yaka tumtum,—to induce him.

Hee´-hee, or He-he, n., adj., v. (J) (By onoma., hihi.) Laughter; amusement; to laugh; fun; a, game; gay; giggle; glee; mirth; humor; humorous; levity; merry; to deride; ridicule; romp; sport. Commonly when used as a verb it is preceded by mamook (which see below), but not always. Ex.: Mamook heehee,—to laugh; play; amuse; deride; mock; make fun; ridicule. Kahta mika heehee?—why do you laugh? Cultus heehee,—a joke; jest; laughter without much cause for it; an innocent game. Kloshe heehee,—a good game. Heehee house,—a house for amusement; a play house; a dance house. Heehee lemah,—to gamble. Heehee tumtum,—jolly. Wake heehee,—serious.

Help, v., n. (English,-idem.) As a verb it is commonly preceded by mamook, but not always. Help; aid; assistance; relief; to help; aid; assist; relieve. Ex.: Mamook help,—to aid; assist; relieve; enable. Potlatch help,—console; help; accommodate; uphold.

Hias,—great. See Hyas. Hiyu,—much. See Hyiu.

Hooe-hooe. See Huyhuy.

Hool-hool, n. (C) (Chinook,-kholkhol; Klikatat,-khoilkhoil.) A mouse. Hyas hoolhool (big mouse),a rat. (The word is obsolete now.)

House, n. (E) A house; home; residence; building; cottage; den. Example: Mahkook house,—a store; Boston house,—an American-built house, as distinguished from a lodge. Mahkook house (trading house), shop. Muckamuck house,—a restaurant; tavern; hotel. Skookum house,—a jail; penitentiary. Siwash house,—a lodge; an Indian house. Sail house kopa snass,—tin umbrella. Papeh house,—a post office. Tyee kopa papeh house,—a postmaster.

Hul-lel, v. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) To tremble; to shake. Used with the verb mamook, as,—Mamook hullel, it becomes active.

Hul-o´-i-ma, n., adj. (C) (Chinook,-s’hulloyiba.) Other; another; different; difference; averse; diverse; eccentric; foreign; odd; separate; strange; queer; unusual. Example: Huloima tilikum,—a different tribe or people. Hyas huloima,—very different; mystery. Yaka lalang huloima kopa nesika lalang,—his language is different from our language. Klatawa kopa huloima illahee,—to emigrate. Kopa huloima,—alibi. Huloima tumtum,—dissent; a different mind. Huloima wawa,—a different language; or foreign language; to mispronounce.

Humm, n., v., adj. (J) An invented word. Bad odor; a stink or smell; to stink; a bad smell; scent; stench; filthy; putrid; an odor. Ex.: Humm opoots (stinking tail),—a skunk. Yaka humm,—it smells bad. Kloshe humm,—a pleasant smell. Hyas humm,—dirty; a very bad smell. Mamook humm,—to scent; to smell.

Huy-huy, n., v. (J.) (Canadian French,-hui-hui.) A bargain or exchange; to barter or trade. Example: Huyhuy la sell,—change the saddle. Huyhuy tumtum,—to change one’s mind. (Mr. Anderson says this is a cant word of the Canadians, signifying a hasty exchange.) Its origin has been suggested in oui oui, yes yes. Example: Nika tikegh huyhuy kiuitan,—I wish to trade horses. Mamook huyhuy,—to change; to trade. (Imp., change.) (Huyhuy is also spelled,—hoehoe, hoeyhoey, hooehoo, hooehooe, huihui, oihoi, huehu.)

Hy-ak´, adv., also used as imperative. (C) (Chinook,-ai-ak.) Swift; fast; quickly; hurry; make haste; hasten; prompt; sudden; suddenly; speed; quick; quickly. Ex.: Hyak yaka chako,—he came quickly. Hyak chako,—imp. come quick. Halo or Wake hyak,—slow; moderate; slowly. (Other ways of spelling Hyak,—aiak; hiack; hyack; hyuc; iake; iyak.)

Hy-as´, adj., adv. (N) (Probably corrupted from the following,—Hyiu.) Large; great; very; the general term for size; wide; big; arduous; vast; celebrated. Example: Hyas tyee,—a great chief. Hyas mahcook,—a great price; dear. Hyas kloshe,—very good. Okoke house yaka hyas,—that house is large. Nika hyas tikegh klatawa,—I very much wish to go. Hyas ahnkuttie,—ancient; anciently; a very long time ago; longer, if a long, strong accent is placed on the last syllable of hyas, and first of ahnkuttie. Hyas kloshe time,—a very good time; a festival. Kunsih hyas,—how large? what size? Hyas tenas,—very small; very short. Hyas Sunday,—Christmas; Fourth of July; Thanksgiving. (Other spellings: Aias; aiaz; haias; hias; hiass.)

Hy-iu´, or Hi-yu, adj. (N) (Nootka,-iyahish—by Jewett; Tokwaht,-aiya.) Jewett also gives hyo as the Nootka word for ten. Much; many; plenty; enough; abundance; plentiful; ample; a pile; the sign of the plural; term of quantity or multitude. Example: Hyiu tilikum,—a crowd; many people. Hyiu muckamuck,—plenty to eat. Tenas hyiu,—several; some. Wake hyiu,—not many or not much; a few; seldom. Kopet hyiu,—enough. Hiyu times,—frequently. Hiyu wawa,—clamor; acclamation; excitement; to argue; talkative. Hiyu tilikums kopa house,—an audience. (Other spellings: Hieu, haiu, hyoo, hyu, hyue, hyyu, hui (Winthrop,—probably misprint for hiu), aio, aiu, etc.)

I

Ik-poo´-ie, v. (C) (Chinook,-ikhpui.) To shut; close; stop; cork; closed shut. Ex.: ikpooie la pote,—shut the door. Mamook ikpooie,—to surround; to shut; Ikpooie kwolan,—deaf; a closed ear.

Ikt, or Icht, adj. (C) (Chinook,-ikht.) One; once; a unit. Used also as the indefinite article, a or an. Ex.: Ikt man,—a man. Ikt-ikt man,—some one or other; here and there one. Ikt cole,—a year. Ikt nika klatawa kopa yahka house,—I have been once to his house. Ikt kwahta,—a quarter. Ikt tahlkie,—day before yesterday. Ikt tukamonuk,—one hundred. Ikt time ikt moon,—monthly. Ikt time kopa klone moon,—quarterly. Kopet ikt,—private; alone; singly; solitary; only one.

Ik´-tah, or Ikta, pron. (C) (Chinook,-ikta.) (Hale says, "Same as kahta, what; why.") What. "The interrogative pronouns are klaska,—who? Kahta or Iktah,—what? and Kunsih,—how many or how much? The latter is also used for when?—i. e., how much time, how many days?"—Hale. Example: Iktah okook?—What is that? Iktah mika tikegh?—What do you want? Iktah?—Well, what now? Iktah mamook?—What’s the matter? Iktah mika mamook?—What are you doing?

Ik´tas, or Iktahs, n. (From preceding.) Things; garments; dress; a thing; goods; merchandise; clothing; utensils; baggage; attire; fabric; occasionally the singular Iktah is used, though not often. The use of the same word for what and for things, has been noticed in some other languages of this coast. "A very expressive word and often adopted into English where the Chinook is used."—Eells. Ex.: Kah mika iktas,—where are your things? Halo ikta mitlite,—there is nothing here. "Do not confuse iktah, meaning ‘what,’ with iktahs, meaning ‘goods, chattels, possessions, merchandise,’ etc."—Buchanan. Nika hiyu iktas,—I have plenty of goods.

Il´-la-hee, Illihie, or Illahe, n. (C) (Chinook,-ilahekh.) Land; country; earth; soil; dirt; region; district; farm; field; clay; shore; ranch. Example: Okoke illahee yaka hyas kloshe,—this land is very good. Boston illahee,—the United States. Delete yaka illahee,—native land. King George illahee,—England. Pasaiooks illahee,—France. Konoway okoke illahee,—the world. Konoway illahee konoway kah,—the universe. Dutchman yaka illahee,—Germany, nearly any part of Europe except France and England. Saghalie Tyee yaka illahee,—Heaven. Siwash illahee,—an Indian reservation. Illahee wake siah kopa chuck,—the coast. Kah mika illahee?—where is your land? Where do you live? Saghalie illahee,—Heaven. Keekwulee illahee,—Hell.

In´-a-poo, or Ee´-na-poo, n. (C) (Chinook,-inapu.) A louse. Sopen inapoo,—jump-louse; a flea.

Inati. See Enati.

Ip´-soot, or Ip-sut, v. (C.) (Chinook,-alhupso) To hide one’s self, or anything; to keep secret; to conceal; hide; hid; sly; concealed. Example: Ipsoot klatawa,—to steal off; slip away. Ipsoot wawa,—to whisper.

Is´-ick, n. (C) (Chinook,-isik), A paddle; an oar (occasionally). Example: Mamook isick,—to paddle. Isick stick,—the ash, or alder, maple, or the elm; wood from which paddles are made.

Is´-kum, v. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) To take hold of; hold; get; receive; accept; secure; catch; recover; obtain; seize. Example: Iskum okook lope,—hold on to that rope. Mika na iskum?—did you get it? Iskum piah stick,—get some firewood. Iskum klootchman,—to get married. Iskum kumtuks,—to learn. Iskum kopa tumtum,—to believe. Potlatch nika,—a give me. Iskum,—take it. Kah mika iskum?—where did you get it? Nika iskum kopa stick,—I got it in the woods.

It´-lo-kum, n. (C) (Chinook,-idem; Lower Chehalis,-ihtlkum; Chehalis,-setlokum.) The game of "hand,"—a common amusement; a mode of gambling. Mamook itlokum,—to gamble.

Itl´-wil-lie, Ilwillie, or Itlwille, n. (C) (Chinook,-etlwili.) Meat; flesh; muscle (of a person or animal) Example: Konaway nika itlwillie sick,—all my flesh is sore. Lemooto yaka itlwillie,—mutton. Moosmoos yaka itlwillie,—beef. Mowitch yaka itlwillie,—venison. Tenas moosmoos yaka itlwillie,—veal. (Bee-ahts (Indian); Bih-atts,—flesh)—Buchanan.

Its´-woot, Itch-wood, or Itshoot, n. (C) (Chinook,-eitshhut.) A bear; a black bear. Example: Itswoot paseesie,—thick, dark cloth or blankets.

K

Kah, adv. (C) (Chinook,-kakh.) Where; whence; whither. Example: Kah mika klatawa?—where are you going? Halo kah,—nowhere. Konoway kah,—everywhere. Kah cole chako,—North. Kah sun chako,—East. Kah sun klatawa,—West. Kah sun mitlite kopa sitkum sun,—South. Kah yaka sick?—where is he sick? what is the matter? Kah mika mitlite?—where do you live? Kah mika illahee?—where do you live? where is your land? Kah mika chako, whence come you?

Kah´-kwa, adj. (N) (Nootka, Tokwaht,-achko.) Like; similar to; equal with; as; so; thus; alike; because; hence; inasmuch; such. Example: Kahkwa nika tumtum,—so I think (literally, such (is) my heart). Kahkwa tyee,—aristocratic. Kahkwa hyas nika,—as large as I. Halo kahkwa,—not like that; unlike. Kahkwa spose,—as if. Kloshe kahkwa,—that is right; (amen, good so); that is good; that will do. Delate kahkwa,—exactly the same. Kopet kahkwa,—that is all. Yaka kahkwa,—alike. Eells says: "Kahkwa is often used with other words, especially nouns, thus changing them into adverbs, and occasionally adjectives, as in the following phrases: Kahkwa chikamin,—metallic. Kahkwa cole illahee,—wintry. Kahkwa chuck,—fluid; liquid. Kahkwa tillikum,—friendly."

Kahp´-ho, n. (C) (Cinook,-idem.) An elder brother, sister, or cousin.

Kah´-ta, adv. (C) (Chinook,-kata.) How; why. Example: Kahta mika mamook okook?—why do you do that? Kahta mika chahko?—how did you come? Kahta mika?—what is the matter with you? how are you? Pe kahta?—and why so? what for? Kahta kopa yaka?—how is he?

Ka-li´-tan, n. (C) (Chinook,-tklaitan.) An arrow; shot; a bullet. Example: Kalitan le sac,—a quiver; a shot-pouch. "An arrow, originally, but when guns were introduced the meaning changed to shot, and bullet, and sometimes lead."—Eells.

Ka-lak´-a-la, Kul-lak´-a-la, Kul´-la-kul´-la, n. (C) (Chinook,-kalakala.) A bird; fowl; insect; wing. The accent sometimes being on the second, and sometimes on the first and third syllables.—Eells. Note.—"The different ways in which some words are spelled is a curiosity, and simply show what educated men will do in this line when they have no standard authority. Very seldom is any word, even the simplest and easy one, spelled in the same way, if it is found in several dictionaries, while some of them are spelled in very many different ways."—Eells. (Other ways of spelling Kalakala: Culacula; kallakala; kalahkalah; kilakila; kulakula; kullukala; cullaculla; cullerculler; cullacullah; kullakullie; kullukullie; kulakulla, etc.)

"An examination of many dictionaries will show among other words,—klonas, spelled in ten different ways; ahnkuttie and keewulee, each in twelve; klootchman and kliminawhit, each in fifteen; klatawa, seahost, and mimoluse, each in sixteen; tahtlum, kalakala, and kilapi, each in eighteen; and kunjih in nineteen different ways; lejaub is in twelve ways, and ooakut in fourteen, but they show a wide variety of sound, lejaub being also dahblo, diaub, derb, leiom, and yaub; and ooakut being hooihut, wayhut, wehkut, and oyhut. Even words which are derived from the English generally have different spellings as soon as the standard English authority is left, so that glease from grease becomes gleese, gleece, glis, and klis; bed is also spelled pet; moon is also mun; nose is also nos; stone is also ston; stocking is also stocken, staken, and stoken; sun is also son; Sunday is also sante; tea is also ti; pehpah (paper) is also papeh, paper, paypa, papah, and pepa, and peppah; and warm also is spelled waum, wam, wahm, and wawm. Shot, skin, man, and a few others have for almost a wonder found no other way of being spelled. There are three reasons for this difference which may be made when the same sound of the letters is preserved, thus wam may be waum or wawm and still preserve the same sound of a. Again, when any writer adopts a regular schedule of sounds for each vowel, he will surely differ in spelling from those who attempt to follow as near as possible the English mode of spelling. Boas, St. Onge, and to a considerable degree Durien have done this, hence tea becomes ti; poolie, puli, and so on. Still farther different modes of pronunciation in different localities, and sometimes in the same locality, are the cause of different ways of spelling. This is especially seen in the words already referred to, ooakut, and lejaub; so kloshe becomes tlush or tloos, and also a large number beginning with kl begin with tl in another place; tahlkie becomes tahnlkie, and so on. Sometimes indeed it is very difficult to discover the true sound, as for instance, whether the first syllable of kalakala should be spelled with an a or u, or the last one of tukamonuk with an a or u, and so on. The mode of pronunciation, and hence the mode of spelling, has undoubtedly changed somewhat since Parker in 1835-6 wrote the first vocabulary. Hence in comparing the ways of spelling the reader ought to remember the place where, the date when, and the system of pronunciation, especially of vowel sounds adopted by each writer."—Eells.

"As will be seen, the orthography of the Jargon is unsettled and capricious. Most writers spell Indian and French words ‘by the ear,’ but use the ordinary English spelling for the English words comprised in the language, without regard to uniformity.  .  .  . Some writers, however, retain in the Jargon the ‘digraph’ gh, to express, in some words of Chinook origin, the sound of the German guttural ch in Buch."—Hale.

"As the Jargon is to be spoken by Englishmen and Frenchmen, and by Indians of at least a dozen tribes, so as to be alike easy and intelligible to all, it must admit no sound which cannot be readily pronounced by all. The numerous harsh Indian gutturals either disappear entirely, or are softened to h and k (see note above). On the other hand, the d, f, g, r, v, z, of the English and French become in the mouth of a Chinook, t, p, k, l, w, and a. The English j (dzh), is changed to ch (tsh). The French nasal n is dropped, or is retained without its nasal sound. In writing the Indian words, the gutturals are expressed by gh (or kh) and q, and the vowels have their Italian sound."—Hale.

Kam´-ass, or La´-kam-ass, n. (N) The Scilla Esculenta,—a bulbous root used for food by the Indians, sometimes called Siwash onion. (Jewitt gives "Chamass" as the Nootka for fruit, also for sweet, or pleasant to the taste.) Lacamass is the name of a place in Clarke County. Wash. (A few other ways of spelling Kamass: Camas, kamas, lakamas, lakammas, camash, kamaas, lackamas.) "Cammassa esculenta, or la cammass (as the French call it)."—Swan.

Ka´m-ooks, n. (C) (Chinook,-klkabokes.) A dog. Kahkwa kamooks,—like a dog; beastly.

Kap-swal-la, or Kap-su-al-la, v. n. (Quaere u. d.) To steal; rob; a theft. Example: Kapswalla klatawa,—to steal away. Kapswalla mamook,—to do secretly. Wake kloshe mika kapswalla (not good you steal),—thou shalt not steal. Halo kumtuks kapswalla, or wake kapswalla,—to be honest. "Kapshwala, before wawa, means to speak ill; with tlatoa (klatawa), it means to run away; with musom, to commit adultery."—St. Onge.

Ka´t-suk, or Ko´t-suk, n. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) The middle or centre of anything.

Kau´-py, n. (E) Coffee.

Kee´-kwu-lee, or Kee´-kwil-lie, prep., (C) (Chinook,-kik’hwili.) Low; below; under; beneath; down; inward. Example: Mamook keekwillie,—to lower. Mitlite keekwillie,—to set down; put under. (Not used in the sense of "down stream.") Elip keekwulee,—lower. Elip keekwulee kopa konoway,—lowest. Klatawa keekwulee kopa chuck,—to dive. Mahsh keekwulee kopa illahee,—to bury.

Kil´-a-pi, or Kel´-a-pi, or Ka-la-pi, v. (C) (Chinook,-kelapai.) To turn; return; overturn; upset; reverse; retreat; capsize. Example: Kilapi canim,—to upset a canoe. Hyak kilapi,—come back quickly. Kilapi kopa house,—go back to the house. Mika kilapi alta,—have you returned now? Mamook kilapi,—to bring, send, or carry back. Kilapi dolla,—to pay; repay. Kilapi tumtum,—to change one’s mind. (A few ways of spelling Kilapi: Kelapie; keelapi; keelapie; keelapy; kilapie; kilapai; killapie; kilapy; kilipie; killipie; kyelapai; kilaps; klips; etc.)

Kim´-ta, or Kim-tah, prep. (C) (Chinook,-kimta.) Behind; after; afterwards; last; since; back; rear; subsequent; younger. Example: Klatawa kimtah,—go behind; to follow. Delate kimta,—last. Nika elip, pe yakka kimtah,—I first, and he afterwards. Okook kimtah,—the one behind. Kimta ow,—a younger brother. Kimtah nika nannitsh mika,—since I saw you. Kimtah sitkum sun,—afternoon. Kimtah kloshe,—worse.

King Chautsh, or King George, King Gawge, adj. (E) (English,-King George.) English. King chautshman,—an Englishman.

Kish-kish, v. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) To drive, as cattle or horses. Ex.: Mamook kishkish,—to drive, or impel, but often used as imperitive,—as, Yaka kishkish nika,—he drove me away. Mamook kishkish okoke moosmoos,—drive away that ox.

Kiu´-a-tan, or Kuitan, n. (C) (Chinook,-ikiuatan.) A horse. Ex.: Klatawa kopa kuitan,—to ride. Yaka hyas kloshe kuitan?—Is that a very good horse? Cooley kuitan,—a race horse. Stone kuitan,—a stallion.

Klah, adj., v. (C) (Chinook,-klakh.) Free or clear from; in sight; to escape. Example: Chee yakka klah,—now he is in sight. Klatawa klah,—to escape, as a prisoner. Chahko klah (of seed),—to come up; (of the woods),—to open out; (of the weather),—to clear up. Mamook klah,—to uncover. (Mr. Anderson gives as the original meaning,—to open out or appear.)

Kla´-ha-nie, or Klah-hanie, or Klaghanie, adv. (C) (Chinook,-klakhani.) Out of doors; out; without; outside; exterior. Example: Mamook klahanie okook,—put that out. Chako klahanie,—to emerge; get out; to be delivered. Klatawa klahanie,—to go out. Mahsh klahanie,—to throw out; deliver; eject. Klahanie kopa house,—out doors.

Kla-ho´w-ya, adv. (C) The ordinary salutation at meeting or parting. How do you do? Good evening; good day; good morning; good-bye; as, Klahowya sikhs,—good day, friend. Kahta mika,—how are you? Kah mika house?—where is your house? Kah mika chako?—whence come you? Kah mika klatawa?—where are going? Mika na kumtuks alki snass?—do you think it will rain? Halo,—no. Nawitka,—yes. Klahowya,—good-bye. Mahsie,—thanks.

Kla-ho´w-yum, adj., n. (C) (Chinook,-klahauia.) Poor; miserable; wretched; compassion; distress. Example: Hyas klahowyum nika,—I am very poor. Mamook klahowyum,—to take pity on; give alms; be generous. Also to impoverish; make poor (the sense in which it is used depends on the connection and circumstances). "The salutation above given probably originated in some whining reply to the first whites, and a distinction has since arisen between the two modes of spelling, which is, however, purely arbitrary."—Gibbs. Eells says: "Gibbs, Gill, Hibben, Tate, and Swan give Klahowoya as the word for salutation, and Klahowyum for poor, but I have never been able to see any difference. In the Willamette Valley in 1850 and afterwards, we always used Klahowyum for both, and I never heard Klahowya. On Puget Sound for about twenty years we have used Klahowya for both; and I have seldom heard Klahowyum." (A few other ways of spelling Klahowya and Klahowyum: Clahoyam; klahaiyam; klahaiiam; klahowyah; klahowyou; klahya; klahyam; klahyeam; klahyeyah; thlacoca; tlaquaya; klahum; klahiyon,—and so on in many other ways.)

Klah-wa, adv. (C) (Chinook,-klawakh.) Slow; slowly; tardy. Ex.: Klatwa klahwa,—go slowly. Yaka chako klahwa,—he comes slowly.

Klak, adv. (C) (Chinook,-klakw.) Off; out; away; (to take) off.

Klak´-sta, or Kluk´-sta, pron. (C) (Chinook,-t’kluksta.) Who; whose; which; which one; any. Ex.: Klaksta yahwa?—who is there? Halo klaksta,—no one, none; not any; nobody. Klaksta mamook okoke,—who made or did that? Ikt man, klonas klaksta,—somebody. Konoway klaksta,—everyone.

Klale, or T’klale, adj. (C) (Chinook,-tlelil.) Black, or dark blue, or green; brown; ignorant. Example: Okoke paseesie yaka klale,—that blanket is black. Klale nika tumtum,—my mind is ignorant. Sitkum-klale,—brown. Wake siah klale,—purple. Klale chuck kopa mamook tzum,—ink.

Klap, v. (C) (Chinook,-tlap.) To find; arrive. Example: Mika na klap mika kiuatan?—did you find your horse? Nika klap Seattle kopa polaklie,—I arrived at Seattle at night. Klap tenas,—to be with child. Klap tumtum,—to decide; to recollect; remember. Klap wawa,—to learn a language.

Klas´-ka, or Klus´-ka, pron. (C) (Chinook,-kluska.) Anything pertaining to the third person, plural number; they; thine; them; their; theirs. Example: Klaska klatawa kopa Clallam illahee,—they went to the Clallam land. Nika nanitsh klaska,—I see them. Okoke klaska ilahee,—this is their land.

Klat´-a-wa, v. (N) (Nootka,-klatturwah (Jewitt); Nittinat,-klatoukh.) To go; travel; attend; flow; migrate; start; tread; leave; begone; get out; depart. Example: Klatawa teahwit,—to walk; go on foot. Yaka klatawa kopa Tacoma,—he went to Tacoma. Klatawa kopa kiuatan,—to ride. Chee klatawa,—to start. Klatawa kopa boat,—to sail; to go in a boat. Mamook klatawa,—to send. (A few of the numerous ways of spelling Klatawa: Clatawah; clattawah; claterwar; clatterwar; clattarwar; clatawar; clatua; clatuwa; klatawah; klatoa; klatwa; tlatoa; tlatowa; and others.)

Klim-in´-awhit, n., v. (C) (Chinook,-kliminawhut.) A lie; to lie; falsehood; untrue. Example: Hyas kumtuks kliminawhit,—he is a great liar (literally, he knows well how to lie). Yaka kwanesum kliminawhit,—he always lies. (Also spelled: Kliminacut; kliminwhit; kliminkwhit; kliminawit; klaminawit; klaminawhit; clementikote; tlemenawhit; tleminwhit; kliminwit; and others.)

Klim´-min, adj. (C) (Chinook,-tklemin-tklemin.) Soft; fine in substance; not hard; fine; little. The reduplication denotes the diminutive, but in Jargon it is generally used singly. Example: Klimmin sapolell,—flour. Chako klimmin,—to melt; become soft. Klimmin illahie,—mud; marshy ground. Wake klimmin, or halo klimmin,—hard. Mamook klimmin,—soften as by dressing a skin.

Klip, adj. (C) (Chinook,-kelipe; Chihalis,-kluptutl; Nisqually,-klep.) Deep; sunken; to sink. Example: Klip chuck,—deep water. Klip sun,—sunset.

Klis´-kwiss, n. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) A mat (made of the cattail rush.) Example: Kliskwiss yaka kloshe kopa bed,—the mat is good for a bed.

Klo-nas, adv. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) Expression of uncertainty or doubt. Perhaps; I don’t know; may be so; who knows? it is doubtful; might; may. Equivalent to the Spanish quien sabe. "The potential mode is indicated by the word, klonas."—Eells. Example: Klonass nika klatawa,—perhaps I shall go. Kah mika kahpho?—where is your brother? Klonass,—I don’t know. Mika tumtum hiyu snass okoke sun?—do you think it will rain much today? Klonas,—I do not know. Klonas yaka chako tomollo,—perhaps he will come tomorrow. (Other ways of spelling Klonas: Klonass; clonas; clunas; kloneas; kloonaz; tlonas; thlunass, etc.)

Klone, adj. (C) (Chinook,-tklon.) Three. (Other spellings: None; clone; cloak; kloon; thlune; tlon, etc.)

Kloshe, or Klosh, adj., adv. (N) (Nootka, Tokwaht,-klohtl; Makah,-klotelo, or klotello; Cloosh,-(Meares); Nisqually,-klob.) A very expressive word: has 45 meanings. Good; well; well enough; affable; amiable; apt; auspicious; beautiful; beloved; beneficial; convenient; efficient; elegant; even; fair; fine; fortunate; fragrant; gay; graceful; hospitable; meek; intimate; kind; mild; modest; moral; neat; nice; pleasant; plain; please; practical; pretty; right; reliable; safe; respectable; secure; still; smooth; splendid; useful; upright; virtuous; untarnished. Ex.: Kloshe nannitsh,—look out; take care; guard; defend; nurse; watch; provide. Delate hyas kloshe,—magnificent. Elip kloshe,—better; superior. Hyas kloshe,—very well; very good; grand; superb. Elip kloshe kopa konoway,—best; supreme. Mamook kloshe,—adorn; appease; arrange; behave; cure; fix; decorate; prepare; repair. Mitlite kloshe tumtum,—to congratulate; enjoy; be contented. Wake kloshe,—unkind; not good; unfavorable; wrong; nasty; naughty. Wake kloshe kopa mahkook,—unsalable. Kloshe kopa mahkook,—merchantable. Kloshe kopa nika,—I am satisfied. Kloshe kopa cultus potlatch,—generous; good about giving; liberal. Kloshe kopet,—be still. Kloshe mitlite,—hold on; remain. Kloshe tumtum,—love, delight; happy; favor; cordial; friendly. Kloshe chako,—all right; come on. Kloshe kahkwa,—well; enough; all, right; amen. Kloshe tumtum mika chako,—an invitation; a welcome. (Other ways of spelling Kloshe: Close; closche; clouch; klosche; klose; kloosh; tloos; tlosh; tlush; cloosh, and others.)

Kloshe-spose, adv. (N and E) (Nootka,-klohtl; English,-suppose.) Shall or may I; let me; good if. Example: Kloshe-spose nika mamook pia okook?—shall I cook that? (literally, (is it) good that I may cook that?) Kloshe-spose nika klatawa?—shall I go?

Klootch-man, n. (N) (Nootka and Tokwaht,-klutsma.) A woman; madam; wife; mistress; a lady; a female of any aninial. Example: Kah mika klootchman?—where is your wife? Tenas klootchman,—a girl; virgin; maiden; daughter; lass; used generally with reference to all girls and women who are not married, and sometimes with reference to young married women. Klootchman kiuatan,—a mare. Tans yaka tenas klootchman,—a granddaughter. Klootchman yaka ats,—a sister-in-law. Klootchman yaka mama,—a mother-in-law. Klootchman yaka ow,—a brother-in-law. Klootchman yaka papa,—a father-in-law. (A few other ways in which the word is spelled: Cloocheman; cloochemin; clootchman; cloachman; clotsheman; kloochman; kleutchman; tlatcheman; tluchmen; klouchman, etc.)

Ko, v. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) To reach; arrive at. Example, Chee klaska ko,—they have just come. Kansih nesika ko kopa Nisqually?—when shall we reach Nisqually? Tahlkie sun nika kopa Olympia,—yesterday I arrived at Olympia.

Kok´-shut, v. (N) (Nootka,-kakhshetl; Kloakwat,-kwachitl.) (In the original, dead.) To break; broken; to beat; hit; bruise; burst; cleave; hurt; demolished; knock; rap; tear; torn; kick; slap; shatter; split; bruised; a break. Eells says: "Often mamook is used with it to make it an active verb; and chako, a verb in the passive voice,—but not always. Thus,—Nika kokshut yaka, and Nika mamook kokshut yaka,—I hit him,—would both be proper. So, Nika kokshut yaka, and Chako kokshut,—I am hurt, would also both be proper." Example: Hyas kokshut,—much broken. Hyiu kokshut,—all broken to pieces. Chako kokshut,—broken; split; bruised; passive of kokshut. Mamook kokshut,—to beat; bruise; see above Kokshut.

Kon´-a-way, adj. (C) (Chinook,-kanawe.) All; every; total; universal; aggregate; entire; the sum; the whole. Example: Klaska konaway klatawa,—they have all gone. Konaway tilikum,—everybody; mankind. Konaway ikta,—everything. Konaway kah,—everywhere. Konaway sun,—every day.

Ko´-pa, adv., prep., conj. (C) (Chinook,-idem; formerly, Kwapa,—Hale.) The principal preposition in the language. At; according to; around; about; concerning; to; into; with; towards; of; there; in that place; than; for; from; on; during; through; instead of. Eells says: "There are nine words and three phrases which are used as prepositions. The principal words are kopa saghalie, over; keekwulee, under; and kunamokst, with; kopa is, however, used more than all the others, as it has a great variety of meanings, which can only be known by the connection, some of which are entirely opposite to each other, as, from and to; for example,—yaka chako kopa saghalie, means, he came from heaven; but,—yaka klatawa kopa saghalie, means he went to heaven. Alta nika potlatch wawa kopa mesika kopa okoke papah, means, now I will talk to you about this picture. Yaka mitlite kopa chuck,—he is on the water; yaka mitlite kopa river,—he is at the river; yaka klatawa kopa stick,—he has gone into the woods; kopa ikt moon yaka mitlite yukwa,—during one month he will stay here; kopa yaka wawa John yaka mimoluse,—according to his story, John is dead. Saghalie kopa mountain,—on top of the mountain; Jesus yaka mimoluse kopa nesika,—Christ died for or instead of us. The word is also used as an adverb and conjunction. Kopa is often prefixed to a noun to show that it is in the possessive case, as okoke kiutan kopa John,—this horse is John’s (literally—this horse to John—i. e., belongs to John)." Ex.: Yaka kamooks mitlite kopa,—his dogs are there. When thus used as an adverb, the accent is on the last syllable which is prolonged. Nika kiutan elip kloshe kopa yaka kiutan,—my horse is better than his horse. Kopa nika house,—at my house. Lolo okoke kopa mika,—take that home with you; equivalent to the French chez vous. Cultus kopa nika,—it is nothing to me. Kah okoke lope?—where is that rope? (motioning with the chin towards the place)—Kopa. Kopa mika,—your; yours. Kopa mesika,—your; yours. Kopa nika,—my; mine. Kopa nesika,—ours. Kopa klaska,—theirs. Kopa yaka,—his; her, hers; its. Kopa bed,—abed; in bed. Kopa boat, or ship,—aboard; on the boat or ship. Kopa kiutan,—horseback; on the horse. Kopa konoway,—common; for all. Kopa huloima,—alibi, elsewhere.

Ko-p´et, v., adj. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) To stop; leave off; enough; only; alone; forbear; quit; simply; submit; abdicate; abrogate; cease; except. Ex.: Kopet wawa,—stop talking. Kopet hiyu,—enough. Kloshe kopet,—be still. Kopet ikt,—lonely; alone; only one. Kopet okoke,—that’s all. Kopet kumtuks,—to forget. Kopet nika mitlite,—I alone remain. Wake siah kopet,—nearly finished. Mamook kopet,—to finish; fulfill; quench; quell; stop; annul; complete; conclude; check. Kopet tomolla,—day after tomorrow. Kopet cooley,—to halt. Kopet kopa school,—to graduate. Konoway klatawa kopet yaka,—all went except him. Halo kopet, or wake yaka kopet,—incomplete; unfinished. Wawa kloshe kopet,—to forbid. "Kopet, before things which can be weighed or counted, must be accompanied by, aiu (hiyu). Ex.: Kopet aiu mitlait (mitlite),—there is enough."—St. Onge.

Kow, v. (C) (Chinook,-kaw-kaw.) To tie; to fasten; to be fastened. Ex.: Now mika kiuatan,—tie your horse. Mika mamook kow mika kiuatan?—have you tied your horse? Nawitka, yaka kow,—yes he is tied. Ikt kow,—a bundle; a package; parcel; pack. Marsh kow,—untie; unfasten; release; unbind. Mamook kow,—to tie; hitch; arrest; shackle.

Kuitan. See Kiuatan.

Kull, adj. (C) (Chinook,-k´hul-k´hul.) Hard in substance; difficult; tough; solid. Example: Chahko kull,—to become hard. Halo kull, or wake kull,—tender; soft; easy. Mamook kull,—to harden; to cause to become hard. Hyas kull spose mamook,—it is very hard to do so. Kull stick,—oak or any hard wood.

Kul-lagh´-an, or Kullah, n. (S) (Chihalis,-kullakh; Lummi,-kullukhan.) A fence; a corral, or inclosure; pen, a rail. Example: Kullagh stick,—fence rails (in the original, it meant the stockade with which Indian houses are often surrounded). Nika tikegh mamook ooahut kah mika kullaghan mitlite,—I wish to make a road where your fence is.

Kultus. See Cultus.

Kum´-tuks, or Kum´-tux, v., n. (N) (Nootka,-kommetak; Tokwaht,-kumituks; Clayoquot,-kemitak.) To know; understand; be acquainted with; learn; perceive; ascertain; recognize; imagine; believe; to be wise; knowing; knowledge; wisdom; sense. Example: Nika kumtuks yaka,—I know him. Nika kumtuks okoke,—I understand it. Yaka mitlite hiyu kumtuks,—he has much knowledge. Delate kumtuks,—to prove; to be sure; to be expert. Halo delate kumtuks,—to be in doubt; uncertain; obscurity. Halo kumtuks,—to misunderstand; not to know; unacquainted; unawares; unintelligible. Halo kumtuks kopa okoke makook,—incompetent. Iskum kumtuks,—to learn; to get knowledge. Kopet kumtuks,—to forget. (Mamook kumtuks,—see Mamook.) Tikegh kumtuks,—to enquire; wish to know. Kumtuks hiyu lalang,—a linguist. Kumtuks kopa siwash, or tillikums,—ethnology. Kumtuks mamook,—skill; competent; practical. Kumtuks papeh,—to read. Kumtuks wawa,—an orator; eloquent. ("Kumtux," name given to Edward Clayson, Sr., editor Patriarch, by newspaper men.) (Other spellings: Cumtux, comtak; cumetax; cumtux; kametaks; komtax; komtoks; kumtax, etc.)

Kun´-a-mokst, or Kun´-a-moxt, adj. prep. (C) (Chinook,-konaway mokst: literally, all two.) Both; together; with; amid; among; beside; besides. Example: Kunamoxt kahkwa,—both alike. Nesika klatawa kunamokst,—We will go together. Nika mitlite kunamokst yaka,—I live with him. Chako kunamokst,—to join; unite; meet; assemble; congregate; convene. Tumtum kunamokst,—to agree. Wawa kunamokst,—to consult.

Kun´-jih, or kun´-sih, adv. (C) (Chinook,-kunseukh.) How many; when; ever. Example: Kunsih tilikum mitlite?—how many people are there? Kunsih mika klatawa?—when do you go? Wake kunsih,—never. Mamook kunsih,—to count. Kunjih laley mika klatawa?—how long before you will go? Kunjih dolla,—what price? what cost? Kunjih hyas,—how large? what size? Kunjih laley,—how long? Kunjih siah,—how far? distance. Kunjih tintin,—what time? Kunjih hiyu,—how much? Kunjih mika chako?—when did you come? (This word is spelled in many different ways, as cansu; kansih, kiassee, konse, konsick, kunjie, kunjik, kunjuk, kunsjake, kunsig, kunsic, konsiah, kunjih, kunji, etc.—Shaw.)

Kwah´-ne-sum, or Kw´an-e-sum, adv. (C) (Chinook,-kwanisum; Yakima,-kwalisim.) Always; forever; eternal; continual; everlasting; perpetual; unceasing. Example: Okoke steamer yaka kwanesum klatawa,—that steamer is always going. Kahkwa kwanesum,—as usual. Kwanesum mitlite,—permanent; to keep.

Kwahtah, n. (E) The quarter of a dollar. The quarter of any number is usually expressed in Jargon by tenas sitkum,—a small half.

Kwaist, or Kweest, adj. (C) (Chinook,-kwaitst.) Nine. Example: Tahtlum pe kweest,—nineteen. (Eells says: "(Western Wash.)—Though not much used there for they generally either say,—kwinnum pe lakit,—5 and 4, or nine.") Kweest tahtlum,—90. Kweest tukamonuk,—900. Kweest thousand,—9,000.

Kwann, adj. (C) (Chinook,-kwankwan.) Glad. According to Mr. Anderson, it means a custom or habit. McCormick says: "It is used by some in this sense as tamed or broken, as of a horse." Kwal is Nisqually for tame. (St. Onge says it means tame; gentle; quiet; meek.)

Kwass, n., adj., v. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) Fear; to be afraid; tame; shy; timid.

Kw´in´-num, adj. (C) (Chinook,-kwenem.) Five. Example: Tahtlum pe kwinnum,—fifteen. Kwinnum tahtlum,—50. Kwinnum tukamonuk,—500.

Kwo-lann, Kwolan or Kwo-lah´-lie, n. (S) (Chilhalis,-kwolan; Nisqually,-kwilani.) The ear. Example: Kumtuks kopa kwolan,—to hear. Halo kwolann, or, ikpooie kwolann,—deaf. "Kwolad,—the ear. Kwuh-lah-dee, the Indian word Koulahdi is more commonly used."—Buchanan.

L

La-boos, or Lapush, n. (F) (French,-la bouche.) The mouth; mouth of a river. Moxt laboos,—the forks of a river. Kloshe kopa lapush,—to relish.

La-ca-set, n. (F) (French,-la casette.) A box, trunk, or chest.

La-clo-a, n. (F) (French,-la croix.) A Cross.

La-gome, n. (F) (French,-la gomme.) Pitch; glue. La gomme stick,—lightwood; the pitchpine.

La-hal. See Slahal.

La-hash´, n. (F) (French,-la hache.) An axe or hatchet.

Lahb, n. (French,-l’herbe.) The Arbutus uva ursi, the leaves of which are used in smoking, alone or mixed with tobacco.

La-kam-mass. See Kamass.

Lak´it, or Lok´-it, adj. (C) (Chinook,-lakt.) Four; four times. Lakit tahtlum,—forty. Tahtlum pe lakit,—fourteen. Lakit tukamonuk,—400.

La-lahm´, or Lalum´, n. (F) (French,-la rame.) An oar. Mamook lalahm,—to row.

La-lang, n. (F) (French,-la langue.) The tongue; a language; dialect; tribe. Example: Nika lalang huloima kopa yaka lalang,—my language is different from his.

La´-ly, n. (C) (Chinook,-lele.) Time; a long time. "Intensity of meaning or duration of time may also be. indicated by prolongation of the sounding of a word, thus: laly (time), la-a-a-aly (a long time). This is based upon an instinctive principle common to all tongues, just as we in English phonetically indicate prolongation of time or extension in space or intensity of feeling by means of the intonation."—Buchanan. Ex.: Tenas laly or wake laly,—a short time; an interval. Kunjih laly,—how long. Tenas laly kimtah,—a little while after. Tenas laly elip,—a little while before. Kunjih laly mika mitlite yahkwa?—how long have you lived here?

La-messe, n. (F) (French,-idem.) The ceremony of the mass. Ex.: Mamook lamesse,—to say mass.

La-mes-tin, or La-met-sin, n. (F) (French,-la medecine.) Medicine (not including magic); drug; ointment; panacea; pill; physic. Example: Halo mika tikegh lametsin?—do you not want medicine? Lametsin tupso,—an herb.

Lam´-mi-eh, Lummieh or Lam-mi-i, n. (F) (French,-la vieille.) An old woman. Example: Kopet ikt lummieh mitlite,—only one old woman remains.

La-mon-ti, or La-mo-ti, n., (F) (French,-la montaigne.) A mountain.

La pea, or Le pee. See Lepee.

La-peep´, n. (F) (French,-la pipe.) A tobacco-pipe. Lapeep kullakala (literally, the "pipe-bird"),—the band-tailed eagle, as its feathers were used to ornament the pipe stems.

La-pel-lah´, v. (Quaere if from the French,-le foyer.) Mamook lapellah,—to roast before the fire.

La-pel-lah´, n. (F) (French,-la planche.) A board; lumber; plank. Example: Nah mika iskum okoke laplash,—where did you get that lumber? Cultus laplash,—slabs; refuse lumber. Laplash man,—a carpenter; a builder.

La-pome, n. (F) (French,-la pomme.) An apple. (The word apple is now used on Puget Sound.)

La-pote, n. (F) (French,-la porte.) A door.

La-push. See Laboos.

La-tet´, n. (F) (Pronounce as though "lah-tayt.") (French,-la tete.) The head; poll; brains; intellect; sense. Example: Pil latet,—red-headed. Nika sick kopa nika latet,—I am sick in my head. Halo letet,—stupid. Huloima latet,—delirious. Kopa latet,—mental. Tupso kopa latet,—hair.

Law, n. (English,-idem.) A law; command; decree; rule; mandate; statutes. Ex.: Yaka kumtuks Boston law,—he understands American law. Delate kopa law,—legal, legitimate, or kloshe kopa law. Wake kloshe kopa law,—illegal; illegitimate.

La-wen´, n. (F) (French,-l’avoine.) Oats.

Le-bal´, n. (F) (French,-idem) A ball; bullet. Tenas lebal,—shot.

Le-jaub, n. (F) (French,-Diable.) The devil; satan; a demon. Example: Spose mika mamook mesachie, lejaub iskum mika,—if you do wrong, the devil will get you. Lejaub yaka illahee,—hell. (Other spellings: Dahblo; diaub; deaub; derb; leiom; leiop; lejob; yaub; lejaum; deob.)

Le-kleh´, n. (F) (French,-le clef.) A key. Example: Mamook le kleh,—lock the door. Mahsh lekleh,—to unlock, or mamook halo lekleh.

Le´-mah, or Leh´-ma, n. (F) (French,-la main.) The hand; the arm; thumb; fingers; sleeve; handle; limb or knot of a tree. (Differentiate by gesture.) Example: Kloshe lemah,—the right (literally, the good hand). Potlatch lemah,—shake hands. Iskum kopa yaka lemah,—to get in his hand or arm; to hug.

Le´-mel, n. (F) (Le mool, on Puget Sound.) (French,-le mulet.) A mule.

Le-mo´-lo, n., adj. (Fr. Canadian,-Le moron, undoubtedly a corruption of Marron, a runaway negro. It applies to men as well as animals, as, for instance, to the tribes which have had no intercourse with the settlements. Eells says it is becoming obsolete, as the word wild is taking its place.) Wild; untamed; skittish; uncivilized. Halo lemolo,—tame.

Le-moo´-to, or Lam-mu´-to, n. (F) (French,-les moutons.) Sheep. (The word sheep is rapidly taking its place.—Eells.)

Le-pee, n. (F) (French,-le pied.) The feet; a foot; leg; thigh; foot print; track; paw. (Luh-pee-ay,—differentiate by gesture—Buchanan.) Example: Yaka lapea yaka kokshut,—his leg is broken. Kah lapea mitlite,—a footstep. Klatawa kopa lapea,—to walk. Tzum kah lepea mitlite,—footstep; track.

Le-p´let, n. (F) (French,-le pretre.) A priest; minister; clergyman; parson. Example: Yahwa klatawa nesika leplet,—there goes our minister. (St. Onge gives: Lesepek,—bishop. Lesapot,—apostle. Katolik,—Catholic. Sesu Kli,—Jesus Christ. Paska,—Easter. Olo time,—Lent. Komenio,—communion. Kopilmasio,—confirmation. Lapatkot,—pentecost. Eklis,—church. Ekstlem oksio,—extreme unction.)

Le-sak´, n. (F) (French,-le sac.) A bag; a pocket; a sack.

Le-whet, n. (F) (On Puget Sound, la whi´p.) (French,-la fouet.) A whip. Mamook lewhet,—to whip.

Lice, n. (English,—rice.) Rice. Ex.: Mika tikegh lice?—do you wish for rice?

Lip´-lip, v. (By onoma.,-Hale.) To boil. Ex.: Okoke lice yaka liplip alta,—the rice is boiling now. Mamook liplip,—to make, or cause to boil.

Liver, n. (E) A river. Example: Yaka mitlite kopa liver,—he is living at the river.

Lockit, Lakit, or Lokit. See Lakit.

Lo´-lo, v. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) (Originally, to carry a child on the back. In Jargon, used in a more extended sense.) To carry; to load; to bear; bring; fetch; remove; transfer; convey; lug; pack; renew. Example: Mamook lolo kopa canim,—to load into a canoe. Kloshe mika lolo okoke iktas,—good you carry these things. Man yaka kumtuks lolo,—a carrier.

Lowullo, lolo, or lohlo, adj, (C) (Chinook,-lowullo.) Round; whole; the entire of anything. Lowullo sapeleel,—whole wheat. Mamook lowullo,—to roll up (Shaw). (Not In general use.)

Lope, n. (E) (English,-rope.) A rope. Tenas lope,—a cord. Skin lope,—a raw hide, riata, or thong.

Lum, n. (E) (English,-rum.) Spirits of any sort; rum; whiskey.

M

Mah´kook, v., n. (Nootka,-makuk; Nittinat and Tokwaht,-idem; Makah,-bakwatl.) To buy or sell; trade or exchange; a bargain; purchase. ("As their buying and selling was merely barter, the same word always answered both operations."—Gibbs.) Eells says: "Gibbs gives it as a noun, a bargain, but it is not so used now. He also gives it as to sell, trade, or exchange, but mahsh is now used to sell, and huyhuy to trade and exchange." Ex.: Hyas mahkook,—dear; very dear (in price). Wake hyas makook, or tensas mahkook,—cheap. Kah mika mahkook okoke iktahs?—where did you buy the goods? Mahkook man,—merchant; trader; salesman; storekeeper. Mahkook house,—a trading-house or a store. Nika tikegh mahkook iktahs,—I wish to buy some things. (Other spellings: Mahcook; makook; makouke; makuk; markoke; markook.)

Mahsh, v. (F) (French,-marcher.) To leave; to turn out; to throw away; sell; acquit; banish; cast; dash; desert; dispatch; dismiss; distribute; detach; drop; apply; expel; to part with; remove; exterminate; extinguish; fling; forsake; get rid of; heave; hurl; lay down; omit; insert; pour; put; reject; release; relinquish; remit; send; remove; sling; sow; spill; spend; thrust; toss; transmit. Example: Mahsh chuck kopa boat,—bail the boat out. Nika mahsh nika kuitan,—I have sold my horse. Cultus mahsh,—to waste. Halo mahsh,—to hold. Mahsh okoke salmon,—throw away that fish. Tenas mahsh,—to move. Mahsh konoway yaka wind,—to die; expire. Mahsh mika capo,—take off your coat. Mahsh klahanie,—to exclude; eject; deliver; evict; turn out; export. Mahsh! (to a dog),—get out! Mahsh keekwulee,—to inject; sink; lower; enclose; throw down; put inside. Mahsh tenas,—to have a child; to be delivered. Mahsh kunamokxt,—to mingle; to mix; to add. Yakka mahsh tum-tum kopa nika,—he has given me his orders, or told me his wishes. Mahsh kopa illahee,—to bury. Mahsh kow,—to untie. Mahsh stone,—to castrate. Mahsh lametsin kopa lemah yaka kloshe kopa small pox,—to vaccinate. Mahsh mesachie,—to go to stool.

Mah-sie, v. (F) (French,-mercie.) Thank you; thanks; thankful. (Eells says also to pray.) Example: Kloshe nesika mahsie kopa Saghalie Tyee,—let us pray to God. Wawa mahsie,—to give thanks; to praise. Mahsie kopa Saghalie Tyee,—the Doxology.

Maht´-lin-nie, adv. (C) (Chinook,-matlini.) Off shore; out at sea. (In boating),—keep off! (If on land),—towards the water.

Mah´twil-lie, adv. (C) (Chinook,-mathwili.) In shore; shoreward. (As a command),—keep in. (On land),—towards the woods, or the interior.

Mal-i-eh, v., n. (F) (French,-marier.) To marry; to get married; marriage; matrimony. Example: Yaka malieh alta?—is he married now? Alta nika klatawa kopa malieh,—now I am going to the marriage. Elip kopa malieh,—ante nuptial. Man yaka chee malieh,—a bridegroom. Klootchman yaka chee malieh,—a bride. Halo malieh,—a benedict. Mamook cut kopa malieh, or, kokshut malieh,—a divorce; to be divorced; to get a divorce.

Ma-ma, n. (E) (English,-mamma.) A mother; a mama. Example: Halo mama,—motherless. Kahkwa mama,—motherly; maternal. Papa pe mama,—parents. Halo papa pe mama,—orphans. Mama yaka ats,—an aunt. Mama yaka mama,—a grandmother. Mama yaka ow,—an uncle.

Mam´-ook, n., v. (N) (Nootka,-mamuk.) To make; to do; to work; labor; exertion; exercise; act; action; deed; work; enact; appoint; accomplish; make; manage; operate; practice; resolve; serve; use; toil; a job; task; achieve; the one word denoting action. "The most useful of all Chinook words, as it is prefixed to many nouns, verbs and adjectives and makes them active verbs; hence, more than any other word it is the sign of the active voice."—Eells. "On Puget Sound it is probably the most common word in use. I have given 209 phrases which begin with it, which answer to a single English word." Dr. Boas says, however, it has acquired an obscene meaning and is no longer in use on the Columbia river. "Used generally as a causative verb, as mamook chako (make to come), bring; mamook liplip, make to boil,"—Hale. Ex.: Ikta mika mamook?—what are you doing? Mamook elip,—to begin; commence. Mamook halo,—to demolish; destroy; erase; ruin; efface; evacuate; overthrow; repeal. Mamook haul,—to haul; subtract; extract; pull; pull off; pick (as apples); dig (as potatoes). Mamook huyhuy,—to change; trade; exchange. Mamook kloshe,—to make good; shine; trim; heal; pacify; remedy; repair; prepare; please; sure; to make safe; sure; or useful. Mamook tumtum,—to think; reason; meditate; reckon; ponder; review; muse; decide; determine; surmise; plan; account; appraise; elect; be amazed; estimate; decide; deduce; design; contemplate; consider. Mamook tzum,—to write; record, subscribe; mark; copy; dye; engrave; enroll; enumerate. Mamook alki; mamook by-by,—to defer; delay. Mamook chako,—to bring; make to come; fetch. Mamook cultus,—to spoil. Mamook delate,—to confirm; straighten; make right; correct. Mamook kahkwa,—to imitate; assimilate; mimic. Mamook kilapie,—to twist; unwind; withdraw; turn over (as a canoe); bring or send back. Mamook kopet,—to stop; check; complete; finish; conclude; deter; quell; quench; annul; prohibit; restrict; extinguish; exterminate; abolish; debar. Mamook kow,—to tie; wrap; hitch; clasp; shackle; strap; confine; detain; fasten; capture; arrest; envelop. Mamook kumtuks,—to teach; show; explain; acquaint; describe; disclose; edify; educate; illustrate; inform; instruct; reveal; introduce; publish. Mamook kunjih; mamook kwunnum,—to count; enumerate. Mamook sick tumtum,—to afflict; ill treat; hurt one’s feelings. Mamook skookum,—to strengthen; invigorate; strive; uphold. Mamook skookum tumtum,—to encourage, to make brave. Mamook skookum haul,—must. Chee mamook,—the beginning; new work. Cultus mamook,—mischief; poor work. Delate kumtuks mamook,—practical; knowing how to work. Halo delate mamook,—to pretend; not right work. Kumtuks mamook,—skill; to know how to work. Kwanesum mamook,—to persevere; persist; endure; be diligent; be industrious; always at work. Potlatch mamook,—to hire; employ; give work. Tikegh mamook,—to endeavor; to wish for work.

Man, n. (E) (English,-idem.) A man; the male of any animal; a husband. Example: Man moolock,—a buck elk. Tenas man,—a young man or boy. Nika man,—my husband. Sister yaka tenas man,—a nephew. Tamahnous man,—a conjurer; an Indian doctor; a sorcerer. Man kloshe kopa yaka lepush pe klale kopa yaka tumtum,—a hypocrite. Man yaka mamook cooley steamer,—a pilot.

Mel´-ass, n. (F) (French,-melasse.) Molasses. ("Not much used, as silup (syrup) has largely taken its place."—Eells.)

Mem´-a-loost, or Mim´-a-loos, v., n., adj. (C) (Chinook,-memalust.) To die; dead; to expire; decay; become rotten. Ex.: Chako mimaloos,—to decay; become rotten. Mamook memaloost,—to kill; assassinate; execute; murder. Mimaloose kopa chuck,—to drown. Mimaloose illahee,—a grave; graveyard; tomb.

Me-sah-chie, adj., n. (C) (Chinook,-masachi.) Bad; wicked; evil; vile; sin; bitter; cruel; depravity; dissolute; dung; filthy; immodest; nasty; obscene; vice; insolence; unworthy; unruly; iniquity; unrighteous; naughty. Example: Elip mesachie,—worse. Elip mesachie kopa konoway,—the worst. Hiyu mesachie mitlite,—unclean. Mesachie mitlite,—danger; peril. "Mesatchee,—bad, vile, vicious, in the sense of vileness, filth, dirtiness, etc., whether in the abstract or in the concrete."—Buchanan.

Me-si´-ka, pron. (C) (Chinook,-mesaika.) "The second person, plural number in all cases." You; your; yours. "There is no such thing as case in Chinook, therefore one form represents at once the nominative, possessive and objective cases, or what corresponds to them in English."Buchanan.

Mi´ka, pron. (C) (Chinook,-maika.) (Anything pertaining to the first person, singular number.) You; your; yours; thee; thou; thy; thine. Example: Okoke mika kiutan?—is this your horse? Kah mika klatawa?—where are you going?

Mi´-mie, adv. (C) (Chinook,-maiami.) Down stream.

Mit´-lite, v. (C) (Chinook,-mitlait.) To sit; sit down; stay at; reside; remain; have; inhabit; abide; dwell; exist; dwell; be present; recline; keep; linger; lodge; possess; reside; roost; wait. (Also used for the impersonal verb, to be; is.) Example: Kah mika mitlite?—where do you live? Yaka mitlite kopa yaka house,—he is at his house. (It is also used in place of to have and to be.) Example: Mitlite kopa house,—he is in the house. Mitlite hyiu salmon kopa mika?—have you plenty of salmon? Mitlite (imp.),—sit down. Cultus mitlite,—to stop anywhere without particular object. Mitlite tenas,—to be with child. Mitlite keekwillie,—to put down. Halo mitlite,—absent. Kloshe mitlite,—stay; hold; hold on; remain. Kunjih mitlite,—how many remain. Okoke mitlite,—this is the remainder. Mitlite kopa chuck,—to be wet; soaked.

Mit´-whit, v. (C) (Chinook,-ametwhet.) To stand; stand up; rise; be erect. Example: Kloshe mesike mitwhit,—please to arise. Mitwhit stick,—a standing tree; a mast.

Mokst, Mox, or Moxt, adj. (C) (Chinook,-makst.) Two; twice.; double; dual; couple; pair; second. Example: Mokst tahtlum,—twenty. Mokst tukamonuk,—200. Mokst tumtum,—double minded; dubious; in doubt.

Mool´a, n. (F) (French,-moulin.) A mill; a manufactory. Example: Laplash, or stick moola,—a saw-mill. Sapolil moola,—a flour-mill.

Moo´-lack, n. (C) (Chinook,-emultik.) An elk. (This word, strangely enough, occurs also in the Koquilth of Humbolt Bay.) The word is obsolete now.

Moon, n. (E) (English,-idem.) The moon. Example: Ikt moon,—a month. Sick moon,—the wane or old moon. Chee moon,—the new moon. Kopa mokst moon nika kilapie,—In two months I will return.

Moos´-moos, n. (K & C) (Klikatat,-musmus; Chinook,-emusinus.) Buffalo; horned cattle; beef. (The word, slightly varied, is common to several languages. Mr. Anderson derives it from the Cree word Moostoos, a buffalo, and supposes it to have been imported by the Canadians; but Father Pandosy makes Musmus Yakima.) Eells says: "The Clallams and Twanas have adopted it into their languages, either from the Chinook Jargon, the Yakama, or some other native language; my opinion is that the latter is true, as buffalo skins were brought to Puget Sound from the Yakama long before the whites came, and the name naturally came with it; so the Yakamas undoubtedly had a name for them long before the Canadians came." Example: Yaka mitlite taghum moosmoos,—he has six cattle. Man yaka kumtuks mamook mimoloose moosmoos,—a butcher.

Moo´-sum, v., n. (S) (Chihalis,-musam.) To sleep; sleep; asleep; slumber. Ex.: Tikegh moosum, or olo moosum,—to be sleepy (literally, to want, or be hungry for sleep). Yaka moosum alta,—he sleeps now. Nika hyas moosum,—I slept very sound.

Mow-itsh, Mow-itch, or Mah´-witsh, n. (N) (Nootka,-mauitsh (Hale); Nittinat,-moitsh,—a deer; Nootka,-moowatsh,—a bear (Jewitt).) A deer; venison; animal. (Frequently used to signify a wild animal: as, Huloima mowitsh,—a strange or different kind of beast. The meaning given in Jewitt's book is probably a misprint. Like Moolock, an elk, the word is found in the Koquilth of Humbolt Bay.) (Other spellings: Mahwitch; mawich; mawitsh; mowich; mowitsh; moueech; mouits; wowich.)

Muck-a-muck, n., v. (Quaere u. d.,-makamak (Hale).) (Neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Mr. Anderson considers it an invented word.) To eat; bite; food; imbibe; lunch; chew; browse; devour; suck food; nutrition; picnic; subsistence; aliment; diet; feast. (Muckamuck is to take anything into the mouth; hence, muckamuck salmun, to eat salmon; muckamuck chuck, to drink water; muckamuck kinootl, to smoke or chew tobacco."—Hale.) Example: Mamook piah muckamuck,—to cook food. Potlatch muckamuck,—to feed. Sail kopa mamook kloshe lapush spose nesika muckamuck,—a napkin. Muckamuck chuck, &c.,—to drink water, or other liquid. Muckamuck kopa polaklie,—supper. Muckamuck kopa sitkum sun,—dinner. Muckamuck kopa tenas sun,—breakfast. (Other ways of spelling: Mackamack; makmak; mokamok; mucamuc; mucamuck; muckermuc; mukamuck; mukamuck; makamak.)

Mus´-ket, n. (English,-idem.) A gun or musket. Stick musket,—a bow.

(N-end)

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