Na,—the interrogative particle. "Interrogation is, however, generally conveyed by intonation only."—Gibbs. "The negative enclitic, ‘na’ in use in former years, is now obsolete, and is never heard now—on Puget Sound at least."—Buchanan.

Na´-ha, or Na-ah, n. (C) (Chinook,-tlkanaa.) A mother (Hale). "Peculiar to the Columbia, and now in fact obsolete, the English ‘mama’ being used instead."—Gibbs. "St. Onge is the only writer who uses it."—Eells.

Nah, interj. (Common to several languages.) Behold; look; look here; ha; hey; look here; I say; listen; here; ho; hark; harken; say. Example: Nah sikhs!—halloo friend! (Used in common conversation to call attention to some point not thoroughly understood, but generally nanitch is used for this purpose. In the Yakama language, it is the sign of the vocative; as Nah tehn!—O man.)

Nan´-itsh, or Nan-ich, v. (Quaere u. d.) (Nootka,-nananitch.—Eells.) To see; look; look for; seek; observe; glance; view; perceive; behold; listen; look here. (Often used in a sentence to call attention to a certain point, as,—see here.) Example: Nanitsh!—look there! Kloshe nanitsh!—look out! take care! be careful; nourish; be cautious; nurse; defend; preserve; entertain; protect; foster; steady; guard; tend; take heed; supervise; watch; provide. Cultus nanitsh,—to look round idly, or from curiosity only. Mamook nanitsh,—to show. (The word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis. Dr. Scouler gives nannanitsh as Nootka and Columbian. It is possibly the former.)

Na-wit´-ka, adv. (C) (Chinook,-idem; Klikatat and Yakama,-n’witka.) Yes; certainly; yes, indeed; to be sure; aye; assuredly; indeed. Example: Nawitka nika klatawa,—yes, I will go. Nawitka wake nika kumtuks,—indeed I don’t know. Klonass nawitka,—perhaps; probably so. Wawa nawitka,—to permit; acquiesce; assent; consent; accord. (In answer to a negative question, many Indians use it as affirming the negative.) Example: Wake mika nanitsh?—did you not see (it)? Nawitka,—I did not.

Nem, n. (E) (English,-name.) A name. Example: Mamook nem,—to name, or call by name. Kloshe nem,—honor; a good name. Hyas kloshe nem,—a great name.

Ne-si´-ka, pron. (C) (Chinook,-Nisaika.) ("Among the Quinaielt Indians I found in 1892 that it is pronounced en-si-ka."—Eells.) We; us; our. Example: Chako kopa nesika,—come to us. Alki nesika klatawa,—soon we will go. Nesika kuitan delate till,—our horses are very tired. Nesika self,—ourselves.

Ne´-whah, (C) (Chinook,-niwha.) It seems to be an adverb used, as is often the case, as a verb, the meaning being hither, come, or bring it hither. Ex.: Newhah nika nanitsh,—here, let me see it.

Ni´-ka, pron. (C) (Chinook,-naika.) I; me; my; mine. The first person, singular, in all cases. Ex.: "The personal pronouns become possessive merely by being preflxed to nouns; as, nika house, my house; mika papa, thy father; nesika illahee, our land"—Hale. "Sometimes s is added to the personal pronouns in the possessive case; thus nikas,—mine; mikas,—yours; yakas,—his, hers, its; nesikas,—ours; mesikas,—yours; klaskas,—theirs. This mode is generally used only when the pronoun is the last word in the sentence, thus: Okoke kiuatan nikas"—Eells. Nika nanitch yaka,—I see him. Yaka kokshut nika,—he hit me. Nika klootchman,—my wife. Nika man,—my husband. Nika self,—myself. Nika tenas man,—my boy; son; sweetheart. Nika tenas klootchman,—my girl; daughter; sweetheart. Nika tumtum,—I guess; think. Nika tumtum kahkwa,—I approve; I think so.

Numerals: "The numerals below a thousand are all from the Old Chinook, and are as follows: Ikt,—one; mokst,—two; klone,—three; lakit,—four; kwinnum,—five; taghum,—six; sinamokst,—seven; stotekin,—eight; kweest,—nine; tahtlum,—ten; tukamonuk,—one hundred. For some reason the words for eight and nine are used but little, either being replaced by the English words eight and nine, or by the combinations for five and three, kwinnum pe klone, and five and four, kwinnum pe lakit. Thousand is either represented by the words tahtlum tukamonuk,—ten hundred, or by the word thousand. Ross (1849) gives hioh (probably hiyu, many) as the word for thousand; hioh-hioh,—two thousand; hioh-hioh-hioh,—three thousand; and hioh-hioh-hioh-hioh,—four thousand."—Eells. "The combinations of the numerals are simple, as tahtlum pe ikt (ten and one),—eleven; mokst tahtlum pe kwinnum (two tens and five),—twenty-five; taghum tahtlum (six tens),—sixty; klone tukamonuk,—three hundred; ikt thousand (or tahtlum tukamonuk) stotekin tukamonuk, kweest tahtlum pe klone,—one thousand, eight hundred and ninety-three."—Eells.

Nose, n. (English,-idem.) ("Buck-sid (Indian,-Common.) Bock-s’d."—Buchanan.) The nose; also, a promontory. Boat nose,—the bow of a boat. Example: Yaka mamook camp kopa nose,—he is camped at the spit.


O´-koke, or O´-kook, pron. (C) (Chinook,-okok.) This; that; it; these; those (differentiate by pointing). (Okoke, this or that, is the only demonstrative pronoun.) Example: Iktah okoke?—what is that? Okoke klaksta,—he who. Okoke klaska,—they (being present). (It is often abbreviated to oke; as, oke sun.—Gibbs.) Okoke mitlite,—the remainder. Okoke polaklie,—tonight. Okoke sun,—today. "There are no words for articles, except that the demonstrative pronoun okoke, that, is sometimes used to denote a very definite the."—Eells.

O´-lal-lie, or O´-lil-lie, n. (Belbella.) (Belbella,-idem.) Originally the salmon berry. (Chinook,-klalelli,—berries in general.) Berries; fruit. Ex.: Klale olallie,—blackberries. Pil olallie,—currants; cranberries. Sallal olallie,—sallal berries. Olallie chuck,—berry juice. Shot olillie,—huckleberries. Seapho, or siahpult olillie,—raspberries; thimble cap berries. Salmon olillie,—salmon berries; &c. (On Puget Sound always called olallie.)

O´-le-man, n., adj. (E) (English,-old man.) An old man; old; worn out; stale. Example: Okoke kuitan yaka hyas oleman,—that horse is very old. (As regards articles, used in the sense of worn out.)

O´-lo, adj. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) Hungry. Example: Olo chuck,—thirsty. Olo moosum,—sleepy. Nika hyas olo alta,—I am very hungry now. Wake siah mimoluse kopa olo,—famished. (Olo moosum, not used on Puget Sound to my knowledge,—tikegh moosum, is sleepy,—Eells.) Olo time,—Lent.

Oo´-a-kut, or Wayhut, n. (Chinook,-wehut; Yakima,-wiet.) A road; path; trail; way; highway; lane. (Under the spelling Oyhut it is the name of a place in Chehalis County, Wash.—Eells.) Example: Kah ooakut kopa Olympia?—where is the road to Olympia? Ooakut kopa chuck,—a channel. Ooakut kopa town,—a street. (Eells says: "The pronunctation as I have given is not found in any of the dictionaries, but is what I have almost universally found on Puget Sound; wayhut being very seldom used. Gibbs says that on the Columbia it is pronounced hwehkut, and on Puget Sound weehut; but Gill (Portland) gives oehut, and I have seldom heard anything but ooahut on Puget Sound; only occasionally wayhut.") (Other ways of spelling: Hooikut; oihut; oihot; oehut; ohehut; owakut; hwehkut; weehut; wehkut; oyhut.)

"The Indians are very quick to detect any difference in the intonation or method of pronunciation of the whites, and sometimes think we speak different languages. An Indian asked me one day (while pointing to a cow) what was the name we called that animal. I told him cow. He said that he had just asked another white man, and he called it a caow. By this means, different Indians who have been with the whites acquire a habit of pronouncing such English words as they pick up in the same style and manner as the person from whom they learn them. This causes a great discrepancy in the Jargon, which at first is difficult to get over. And, again, each tribe will add some local words of their own language, so that while a person can make himself understood among any of the tribes for the purposes of trade, it is difficult to hold a lengthened conversation on any subject without the aid of some one who has become more familiar with the peculiar style."—Judge Swan.

O´-poots, or O´pootsh, n. (C) (Chinook,-obeputsh.) The fundament; the posterior; the tail of an animal; anus; end; rectum; stern; back; backside. Example: Boat opoots,—the rudder. Opoots-sill,—a breach clout. Humm opoots,—a skunk.

Ow, n. (Chinook,-au.) A brother younger than the speaker. Example: Kah mika ow?—where is your brother? Elip ow,—an older brother. Kahkwa ow,—-fraternal; brotherly. Ow yaka klootchman,—a sister-in-law. Ow yaka tenas man,—a nephew. Ow yaka tenas klootchman,—a niece.

Order of the Words: "There is no settled authority in regard to the order of the words in this language. They are generally placed in much the same order as they are in the language which the speaker has been accustomed to use, if he be not well acquainted with the language. An English speaking person will place them in much the same order that he would in English, but there are many phrases where this is not true, the order of which must be acquired by practice; for instance,—halo nika kumtuks,—not I understand, is far more common than nika halo kumtuks. An Indian who has learned somewhat the English order, will arrange the words in much the same way; but if the speaker is an old Indian who knows but little about English he will arrange them much as he is accustomed to do in his native tongue, which is usually very different from the English. As the tendency, however, is not for the whites to learn the native Indian languages, but for the Indians to learn the English, so the tendency is toward the English order of the words."—Eells.


Pahtl, adj. (C) (Chlinook,-patl.) Full. Example: Pahtl-lum or paht-lum,—drunk. Pahtl chuck,—wet. Pahtl illahie,—dirty. Mamook pahtl,—to fill. Kwanesum yaka pahtlum,—he is always drunk. (Other ways of spelling Pahtl: Partle; patl; patle; pattle.) (Pahtlum is also spelled: Pahtllum; patlem; phatlum; pahtllam; partlelum; potlum; pottlelum.)

Paint, or Pent, n., adj. (E) (English,-paint.) Mamook pent,—to paint.

Papa, n. (English,-idem.) A father. Ex.: Nika nanitsh yaka papa,—I see his father.

Pa-se´-se, or Pa´-see-sie, n. (C) (Chinook,-pasisi.) A blanket; woolen cloth. Ex.: Yaka mitlite kwinnum paseesie,—he has five blankets. Tzum paseesie,—a quilt. "Paseesee, is properly pronounced with the accent on the second syllable. You will see how very different the word becomes if you attempt to accent the first or last syllables."—Gill.

Pa´-si-ooks, n., adj. (C) (Chinook,-pasisiuks.) French; a Frenchman. Ex.: Ahnkuttie hiyu pasiooks man mitlite yakwa,—formerly many Frenchmen lived here. "Mr. Hale supposed this to be a corruption of the French word Francais. It is, however, really derived from the foregoing word, Pasisi, with the terminal uks, which is a plural form applied to living beings. Lewis and Clarke (vol. 2, pp. 413) give Pashisheooks,—clothmen, as the Chinook name for the whites, and this explanation was also furnished me by people of that tribe. It has since been generally restricted to the French Canadians, though, among some of the tribes east of the Cascade Range, it is applied indiscriminately to all the Hudson’s Bay people."—Gibbs. (Other ways of spelling: Pahseooks; pasaiooks; pasaiuks; passaiooks; pesioux; pesyooks; pasheshiooks; passiuks.) "The origin of some of the words is rather whimsical. The Americans, British, and French are distinguished by the terms Boston, Kingchotsh (King George), and Pasaiuks, which is presumed to be the word Francais (as neither f, r, nor the nasal n can be pronounced by the Indians) with the Chinook plural termination uke added. The word for blanket, pasessee, is probably from the same source (francaises,—French goods or clothing)."—Hale. (See Dutchman.)

Pe, or Pee, conj. (F) (French,-puis.) And; but; Eells says and and but are its only meanings. Gibbs and Hale give then, besides, or. Hale says: "Only two conjunctions, properly speaking, are found in the language, Pe and Spose, often contracted to Pos. These two conjunctions form the only exceptions to the rule that all the grammatical elements of the jargon are derived from the proper Chinook language. The pronouns and the numerals are pure Chinook." Ex.: Yaka pe nika klatawa,—he and I will go. Yaka wawa kahkwa pe nika wawa huloima,—he said so, but I said differently. Pe weght,—and; also; besides. Pe kahta,—and why; for what; what reason.

Peh´-pah, or Papah, n. (English,-paper.) Paper; a letter; any writing; book; message. Ex.: Mamook pehpah,—to write. Kloshe mika mamook papah kopa nika,—please to write a letter for me. Kumtuka papah,—to read. Saghalie tyee yaka papah,—the Bible; Testament.

Pel´-ton, or Pehlten, n., adj. (Jargon.) A fool; foolish; crazy; absurd; insane. Ex.: Kahkwa pelton,—like a fool; hyas pelton mika,—you are very silly. (The Indians adopted this word from the name of a deranged person, Archibald Pelton, or perhaps Felton, whom Mr. Wilson P. Hunt found on his journey to Astoria, and carried there with him. The circumstance is mentioned by Franchere, in his "Narrative," trans., p. 149.) "The word pehlten—insane, crazy—comes from ‘Filion,’ the name of an employee of the Hudson’s Bay, who became insane. Between the French and English pronunciation of that name, the Indians made it pilio, pilian, and at last pehlten, and adopted the name to mean insane in general."—Kamloops Wawa. (Other spellings: Pelhten; pilten; piltin; pilton.)

Pe-shak´, or Pe-shuk, adj. (N) (Nootka,-peshuk; Nittinat,-idem.) Bad. (Mesachie is used for it on Puget Sound.)

Pe-what-tie, adj. (C) (Chinook,-pihwati.) Thin, like paper, etc.

Pi´-ah, n., adj. (E) Fire; ripe; cooked; mature; blaze; flame; burned; mellow. Example: Mamook piah,—to cook; to burn. Piah-ship,—a steamer; piah olillie,—ripe berries. Piah chuck,—whiskey. Piah sapolill,—baked bread. Piah sick,—the venereal disease. Saghalie piah,—lightning. Shot ollalie yaka piah alta,—the huckleberries are ripe now.

Pil, adj. (C.) (Chinook,-tlpelpel.) Red; of a reddish color. (Father Pandosy gives Pilpilp as signifying red, in the Nez Perce or Sahaptin, also.) Pil illihie,—red clay or vermillion. Pil dolla,—gold. Pil chickamin,—copper. Pil kiuatan,—a bay or chestnut horse.

Pil´-pil, n. (Jargon) Blood. Hiyu pipil chako,—much blood came. Mahsh pilpil,—to bleed; to menstruate. (Derived from the foregoing.) (Lee and Frost give pilpil, as red.)

Pish, n. (E) Fish. Example: Mika tikegh mahsh okoke pish,—do you wish to sell that fish? Kah iskum pish, or kah pish milite,—a fishery. Mamook pish,—to troll; to fish. Muckamuck kopa pish,—bait.

Pish-pish. See Puss-puss.

Pit-lith, or Pit-hlil´, adj. (Quaere u. d.) Thick in consistence, as molasses.

Piu-piu, n., v., interj. (F) (French,-puer.) To stink. Or from the sound often uttered expressive of disgust at a bad smell. A skunk. Generally used as an interjection. Example: Piupiu! What a bad smell there is! (Humm, is generally used in sentences.)

Poh, v. (Chinook,-idem.) (By onoma.) To blow; a puff of breath. Mamook poh,—to blow out or extinguish, as a candle.

Po´-lak-lie, or Polakly, n., adj. (C) (Chinook,-Polakli.) Night; darkness; dark; gloom. Example: Tenas polaklie,—evening; Hyas polaklie,—late at night; very dark; Sit-kum polaklie,—midnight (literally,—the half night). Alki polaklie chako,—soon night will come. Kimtah sitkum polukly,—after midnight. (Other spellings: Polackley; polackly; polakle; polaklie; polikely; pollakle; poolakle; polukly).

Po´-lal-lie, n. (Quaere French,-Poudre.) Gunpowder; dust; sand. Polallie illahie,—sandy ground. (The word is certainly neither Chinook nor Chihalis.) (Other ways of spelling: Polale, polally, polalely, pollalley, pollalue, poolala, pooale.)

Poo, n. (By onoma. (Hale).) The sound of a gun. Mamook poo,—to shoot; Moxt poo,—a double-barreled gun. Tohum poo,—a six-shooter. (Other spellings: Po; poh; pu.)

Pot´-latch, or Paht-latsh, n., v. (N) (Nootka,-Pahchilt (Jewitt); Pachaetl or Pachatl (Cook).) A gift; to give; allot; cede; expend; pay; impart; restore. Ex.: Cultus potlatch,—a present or free gift; expecting no return: a donation. Mamook potlatch,—to make a potlatch. Tikegh potlatch,—to offer. Note—"A great distribution of gifts; the largest gathering and festival of the Indians of the North Pacific Coast."—Eells. "The potlatch was the greatest institution of the Indian, and is to this day. From far and near assembled the invited guests and tribes and with feasting, singing, chanting and dancing, the bounteous collection was distributed: a chief was made penniless. The wealth of a lifetime was dissipated in an hour, but his head ever after was crowned with the glory of a satisfied ambition: he had won the honor and reverence of his people. It was a beautiful custom; beautiful in the eyes of the natives of high or low degree, confined to no particular tribe, but to be met with everywhere along the coast."—The Siwash.

"Potlatch (noun)—That which is given, bestowed, bequeathed, given, etc., i. e., a gift. Always given with the expectation, greater or lesser, of a return. Cultus potlatch,—a purposeless gift, that is, outright with no expectation of return. Potlatch,—an old Indian feast and custom, forbidden by law, characterized by extreme extravagance on the part of the host or hostess in the bestowal of gifts upon guests. Potlatch muckamuck,—To give food."—Buchanan. (Other ways of spelling: Potlash, potlatch, potlach, potlatsh). Kloshe mika potlatch nika wawa kopa yaka,—to intercede. Cultus potlatch tumtum,—to advise; counsel; to give advice or counsel. Kloshe kopa cultus potlatch,—generous. Ipsoot potlatch dolla kopa tyee,—to bribe. Potlatch dolla,—to give alms; to pay. Potlatch kloshe wawa,—to congratulate; admonish. Potlatch kopa saghalie tyee,—to dedicate; to consecrate. Potlatch kumtuks kopa mesachie,—to warn; give warning. Potlatch mesachie wawa kopa tulikums,—to insult. Potlatch muckamuck pe konaway iktas,—to support. Potlatch saghalie yaka wawa,—to preach. Potlatch skookum wawa,—to reprove; exhort. Potlatch wawa,—to make a speech; to speak; to order.

Puk´-puk, n. (Probably an invented word.) A blow with the fist; a fist-fight. Mamook pukpuk,—to box; to fight with the fists. Pukpuk solleks,—to fight in anger.

Puss'-puss, n. (E) A cat. (On Puget Sound, pronounced Pish-pish.)—Eells. Hyas pusspuss,—a cougar.


Sagh´-a-lie, Sahhali, n., adj. (C) (Chinook,-sakhali; Clatsop,-ukhshakhali.) Up; above; high; upper; celestial; uppermost; over; top; upwards; heaven; sky. "Saghalie has been translated by the Indians into nearly all their languages on Puget Sound; as, (Wis sowulus,-Twana) (Shuk siab,-Clallam) (Tsitsl siam,-Clallam) (Klokt als,-Upper Chehalis) (Klokt als,-Lower Chehalis). All of which mean the same,—The Above Chief."—Eells. Ex.: Potlatch saghalie tyee yaka wawa,—to preach. Saghalie tyee yaka book,—the Bible; Scriptures; Testament. Saghalie tyee yaka tenas,—Jesus Christ; God’s son. Saghalle tyee yaka illahie,—heaven. Saghalie tyee yaka wawa,—a sermon; religious talk;. gospel; religion. Saghalie tyee (literally,—the Chief above),—God; Lord; Deity; Jehovah; Providence. A term invented by the missionaries for want of a native one. Alki nesika klatawa kopa saghalie,—soon we will go to heaven. Saghalie kopa house,—upstairs. Saghalie illahie,—mountain. Tenas saghalie illahie,—a hill. (Other spellings: Sahale; sahali; saghalle; sahhahlee; sahhale; sahhali; sahilli; sakahlee; sakailly; sakalie; sakally; sokallee; saukhale; and so on). Saghalie piah,—lightning. Saghalie tyee nesika papa, yaka tenas, Jesus, pe yaka Holy Spirit,—the Trinity. Saghalie tyee papa,—God the Father. Tillikums klaska halo kumtuks kopa saghalie tyee,—heathen.

Sail, or Sill, n. (English,-sail.) A sail; or any cotton or linen goods. Cloth; calico; sheet; flag. Example: Okoke sail hyas cultus,—that cloth is very poor. Mamook sail,—to make sail; Mamook keekwillie sail,—to take in sail; Tzum sail,—printed cloth or calico. Snass sail,—oil cloth. (Other spellings: Seel, sel, sell, sil, sill.)

So-kal´-eks, or Se-kol´-uks, n. (C) (Chinook,-tsakaluks,—leggings.) Trousers; pantaloons; pants; breeches. Example: Keekwillie sakoleks,—drawers. Okoke sakolleks hyas mahkook,—these pants are very dear. Klahanie sakolleks,—overalls. (Other spellings: Sakahleks, sakaleks, sakalooks, sakaluks, sakuleks, segalax, sekarlox, sekoluks, shecollon.)

Sal-lal´, n. (C) (Chinook,-klkwushala (Shelwell, of Lewis and Clarke).) The sallal berry; fruit of gualtheria shallon.

Salmon, or Sam´-un, n. (English,-idem.) The salmon; fish generally. Example: Mika tikegh mahkook salmon?—do you wish to buy a salmon? Tyee salmon,—i. e., chief salmon, the spring salmon (salmo kwinnat, Rich.); Masahchie salmon, a winter species (salmo canis, Suckley); Tzum salmon,—salmon trout.

Salt, n., adj. (English,-idem.) Salt, or a salt taste. Hyas salt chuck,—the ocean. Salt chuck,—salt water; brine; marine; the sea; waters of Puget Sound. Salt chuck tupso,—sea weed.

San-de-lie, n., adj. (F) (French,-Cendre.) Ash-colored. (Anderson). A roan horse; roan-colored.

Sap´-o-lill, n. (C) (Chinook,-Tsapelil.) (Yakima,-Saplil;—bread. (Pandosy).) Wheat; flour, or meal; a loaf; grain. Example: Hiyu sapolil milite,—there is much flour. Piah sapolill,—baked bread. Lolo sapolill,—whole wheat. (The word has been erroneously supposed to. come from the French la farine. It is, however, a true Indian word, and seems common to various Columbia river tribes. Pandosy gives Saplil as Yakima for bread; Lewis and Clarke write it Chapelell.) (Other spellings: Chapalell; sapalel; sapolel; sapolill; sappelail; sapplel; sapplil).

Se´-ah-host, or Se-agh´-ost, n. (C) (Chinook,-Siakhost,—the face.) The face; the eyes; eyeball; countenance; forehead. (Differentiate by gesture.) Buchanan. Example: Halo seahhost,—blind. Icht seahhost,—one-eyed. Lakit seahhost (four eyes), or Dolla seahhost,—spectacles (or glass seahost). Nika nanitch yaka kopa nika seahost,—I saw him with my eyes. Chuck kopa seahost,—tears. Lametsin kopa seahost,—eye-water. Tupso kopa seahost,—bread. (Other spellings: Seakose; searhost; seeahhoos; seeakhose; seeakose; seeouist; seeowist; siahoos; sheaughouest; siahost.)

Se´-ah-po, or Se-ah-pult, n. (F) (French,-Chapeau.) A hat or cap. Example: Klootchman seahpo,—a bonnet; a woman's hat. Yaka seahpo mitlite kopa yaka latet,—his hat is on his head. Seahpolt olillie,—the raspberry. (Other spellings: Seahpolt, searportl, seeahpal, siapool, siapult, seohpo.)

Self, n. (English,-idem.) Self. Example: Klaska self,—themselves. Mesika self,—yourselves. Mika self,—yourself. Nesika self,—ourselves. Mika self,—myself. Yaka self,—himself; herself; itself.

Shame, or Shem, n. (English,-idem.) Shame. Example: Halo shame,—shameless. Halo shem mika?—aren’t you ashamed of yourself? Mamook shame,—to deride; disgrace; dishonor; ridicule.

Shan-tie, v. (F) (French,-chanter.) To sing. (Other spellings: Shante, shartee, sharty, shonta.)

Ship, n. (English,-idem.) A ship or vessel. Stick ship,—a sailing vessel. Piah ship,—a steamer. Ship-man,—a sailor.

Shoes, n. (English,-idem.) Shoes; skin shoes; moccasins. Ex.: Stick shoes,—boots or shoes made of leather.

Shot, n. (English,-idem.) Shot; lead. Ex.: Shot olillie,—huckleberries. Okoke shot hyas till,—these shot are very heavy.

Shu´-gah, or Shu´-kwa, n. (E) Sugar; honey. Example: Halo shuga mitlite,—there is no sugar. (Other spellings: Shuga, shuka, sooka, sook, sugar.)

Si-ah´, adj. (N) (Nootka,-Saia.) (Nootka,-Sieyah (Jewitt). Sky; hence perhaps the afar,—Gibbs.) Far; far off; afar; away; distant; remote. (Comparative distance is expressed by intonation or repetition; as, Siah-siah,—very far; (see Ahnkuttie),—Gibbs.) Jewitt gives Sieyah as the sky in Nootka, which was perhaps the true meaning, or, more probably, they called the sky "the afar." Example: Alki nika klatawa siah,—soon I will go far off. (Prolong the last syllable and it means very far.—Eells.) Delate siah,—a great distance. Elip siah,—farther. Elip siah kopa konaway,—farthest. Tenas siah,—a little ways off. Wake siah,—not far; near. Wake siah kahkwa,—nearly so. Wake siah kopa,—about; adjoining; almost; around; by. (Other spellings: Sia; saia; sciah; siar; siyah.)

Siam, n. (C) (Chinook,-Ishaiem.) The grizzly bear. (Sometimes siam itchwoot.—Eells.)

Sick, adj. (English,-idem.) Sick. Example: Sick tumtum,—grieved; to feel with the heart; regret; worry; sorry; jealous; unhappy; sad; heartache. Mamook sick tumtum,—to hurt one’s feelings. Sick kopa kwolan,—earache. Sick tumtum kunamokst,—to have sympathy. Cole-sick-waum-sick,—fever and ague.

Sikhs, or Shikhs, Six, n. (C) (Chinook,-Skasiks; Sahaptin,-Shikstua,—Pandosy.) A friend; companion. (Used only towards men.—Gibbs.) Example: Klahowya sikhs,—how do you do, friend. (Other spellings: Six; seix; sex; shixe; siks; shiks.)

Sin´-a-mokst, or Sin´-a-moxt, adj. (C) (Chinook,-Sinimakst.) Seven. Example: Sinamokst man mitlite yukwa,—seven men are here. Tahtlum pe sinamokst,—seventeen. Sinamokst tahtlum,—seventy. Sinamokst tukamonuk,—seven hundred. (Other spellings: Cinamust; senemokst; senemoxt; sennamox; sinamox; sinamuxt.)

Sis´-ki-you, n. (Cree.) (Anderson.) A bob-tailed horse. (Tolmie and Dawson give tshis-ki-you,—sky; Aht,—kaiookwaht.)—Editor. ("This name, ludicrously enough, has been bestowed on the range of mountains separating Oregon and California, and also on a county in the latter state. The origin of this designation, as related to me by Mr. Anderson, was as follows. Mr. Archibald R. McLeod, a chief factor of the Hudson’s Bay Company, in the year 1828, while crossing the mountains with a pack train, was overtaken by a snow storm, in which he lost most of his animals, including a noted bob-tailed race-horse. His Canadian followers, in compliment to their chief, or ‘bourgeois,’ named the place the Pass of the Siskiyou,—an appellation subsequently adopted as the veritable Indian name of the locality, and which thence extended to the whole range, and the adjoining district."Gibbs.) (See note under Tatoosh.)

Sit´-kum, n., adj. (C) (Chinook,-Sitkum (Anderson); Clatsop,-Asitko.) A half; a part; fraction; middle; some; a piece. Example: Delate sitkum,—exactly half—not a part. Elip sitkum,—a quorum; more than half. Sitkum dolla,—half a dollar. Sitkum sun,—noon. Elip sitkum sun,—forenoon. Kah sun mitlite kopa sitkum sun,—south. Tenas sitkum,—a quarter, or a small part (not often used). Sitkum bit,—five cents.

Si´wash, n., adj. (F) (French,-Sauvage.) An Indian; Indian; aborigines; a savage; savage. Example: Hiyu siwash mitlite yukwa,—many Indians are here. Okoke siwash klootchman,—that is an Indian woman. Kumtuks kopa siwash,—ethnology. Sitkum siwash,—a half-breed. "The Siwash of Puget Sound (a general term applied to males of all the tribes) and the Indians of the entire North Pacific coast."—The Siwash, pp. 10-11. (Walker says: "The word is pure Indian and the one used by the Wasco Indians, and probably by the Klickitats, both of which tribes originally ranged along the Columbia river from the Cascades to The Dalles, and whose languages are nearly identical, to designate a human as distinguished from an animal or other creature. Probably ‘people’ is the nearest word in English for it. After the coming of the whites among them they adopted the names ‘Bostons,’ ‘King George,’ ‘Passieuks’ (French), etc., retaining the word ‘siwash’ for application to Indians. While undoubtedly the Chinook Jargon was more or less of a growth, yet I have been told by the Wasco Indians that the language was perfected and first written down by the Catholic priests at the Dalles, and they appear to have drawn quite freely from the Wasco language in doing so.") "Out of his canoe he is a fish out of water, a sloth away from his natural surroundings. He is like a seal on shore, a duck on dry land, ungainly and awkward."—The Siwash.

Skin, n. (English,-idem.) Skin; a skin; leather; hide; pelt; fur; buckskin. Skin shoes,—moccasins. Stick skin,—the bark of a tree. Dly skin,—leather.

Skoo´-kum, or Skoo-koom, n., adj. (S) (Chihalis,-Skukum.) Strong; a ghost; an evil spirit or demon; able; solid; potent; powerful; vehement; tight; violent; tough. Example: Nika kuitan yaka skookum,—my horse is strong. Delate hyas skookum,—omnipotent. Elip skookum,—stronger. Elip skookum kopa konoway,—strongest. Halo skookum, or Wake yaka skookum,—feeble; frail; flimsy; impotent; infirm; languid; tender; unable; weak; wavering; decrepit. Skookum tumtum (adj., n.),—audacious; brave; bold; capable; daring; dauntless; determined; earnest; indomitable; resolute; robust; sanguine; solid; valiant; boldness; courage. Skookum chuck,—swift water; a rapid. Skookum wawa,—to beg; beseech; boast; chide; demand; exhort, implore; plead; rebuke; scold; screech; scream; shriek; hulloa; urge. (Other spellings: Skokoom, skukum, shukum.) "Skookum Club,"—name given to Democratic Club of Seattle; also name of a famous brand of cigar.

Sla-hal, n. (C) (Chinook,-Etlaltlal.) Gibbs says it is a game played with ten small disks, one of which is marked, and mamook slahal, is to play the game, or gamble with them; while others say that they mean respectively a game and to gamble, in general. ("In Twana the word for the round disks is Lahul; in Nisqually, Lahallab; in Clallam, Slehallum; in Lower Chehalis, Lahul; and in Upper Chehalis, Lal. For the gambling bones it is Slahal in Twana and Nisqually, and Slahal in Clallam. Evidently on account of the similarity of the words, Slahal and Lahul, these words have been confounded; Mamook lahal being properly to gamble with the disks; and Mamook slahal to gamble with the bones."—Eells.)

Snass, n. (Quaere u. d.) Rain. (The word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis, and is perhaps manufactured.) Example: Halo nika tikegh klatawa kopa snass,—I do not wish to go in the rain. Snass chako,—it is raining. Cole snass,—snow.

Sol´-leks, or Sah´-leks, n., adj. (Quaere u. d.) Anger; be angry; malice; hate; hatred; hostile; indignant; morose; mad; sulky; sullen; be mad. Example: Mamook solleks,—to fight; resent; offend; provoke. Tikegh solleks,—to be hostile. Kumtuks solleks,—to be passionate. Halo solleks,—meek; mild; pleasant. Yaka hyas solleks,—he is very angry. Yaka solleks kopa nika,—he is mad at me. Chako solleks,—to become angry; provoked, or offended. Hyas solleks,—furious; rabid; full of vengeance or rage; very angry. Hiyu solleks,—fury; rage; vengeance. Solleks wawa,—a quarrel; growl. (Other spellings: Saliks, salix, sallix, sallux, silex, soleks.)

So´pe-na, v. (C) (Chinook,-T’sopena.) To jump; to leap; hop; skip; spring.

Spose, conj. (English,-Suppose.) If; supposing; that; provided that; in order that. (Boas says it is more frequently pronounced pos on the Columbia river; and that pos in Chinook means if; so that spose may be explained as due to folk etymology on the part of the traders, or pos as folk etymology on the part of the Chinook.—Gibbs.) (Other spellings: Pos, pose, spos.) Example: Spose mika nanitch nika canim,—if you see my canoe. Spose nika klatawa kopa Chinook,—if or when I go to Chinook. Kahkwa spose,—as if. (See Kloshe spose.) Spose mika tikegh, nika klatawa,—If you wish I will go. Spose kopet lakit tahtlum sun, Jesus yaka tikegh klatawa kopa Saghale,—(literally) when ended four ten days, Jesus he would go to heaven,—i. e., when the forty days ended, He desired to ascend to Heaven. "A conditional or suppositive meaning is given to a sentence by the words klonas, perhaps, and spose (from the English ‘suppose’), used rather indefinitely. Ex.: Nika kwass nika papa klonas mimaloose,—I fear my father will die (lit., I afraid my father perhaps die). Spose mika klatawa yahwa, pe nika chaco kahkwa,—if you will go yonder, I will follow (lit., suppose you go that way, then I come the same)." "It will be noticed that these two conjunctions form the only exceptions to the rule that all the grammatical elements of the Jargon are derived from the proper Chinook language. Only two conjunctions, properly speaking, are found in the language—pe, from the French word puis, and spose."—Hale.

Stick, n., adj. (English,-idem.) A stick; a tree; wood; wooden; vine; pole; rod. Example: Stick skin,—bark. Ship stick,—a mast. Mitwhit stick,—a standing tree. Icht stick,—a yard measure. Stick shoes,—leather shoes or boots, as distinguished from skin shoes or moccasins. Kull stick,—oak (hard wood). Isick stick,—the ash (paddle wood).

Stock´-en, n. (E.) Stockings or socks. (The Twanas have adopted it. into their language as stah-kid.—Eells.)

Stoh, adj. (Chinook,-idem.) Loose. Example: Mamook stoh,—to untie; unloose; undo. (Metaphorically, to absolve sins.)

Stone, n. (English,-idem.) A rock or stone; bone; horn; the testicles; finger nail; boulder. Example: Stone chikamin,—ore. Stone kiuatan,—a stallion. Mahsh stone,—to castrate. Stone illahie,—a mountain. T’kope stone,—quartz; any white stone.

Stote´-kin, adj. (C) (Chinook,-Stoktkin.) Eight. Example: Tahtlum pe stotekin,—eighteen. (Other spellings: Istoughtkin; sothin; stoghtkin; stopekin; stoktkekin; stotkin.)

Stutch´-un, n. (English,-Sturgeon.) The Sturgeon. (Other spellings: Stuchun, stutchin, stogheon, stogeon, stutshin, sturgeon.)

Sun, n. (English,-idem.) The sun; a day. Example: Sun yaka waum alta,—the sun is warm now. Okoke sun,—today. Tahlkie sun,—yesterday. (Ikt tahlkie,—day before yesterday.) Tenas sun,—early. Sitkum sun,—noon. Wake siah sitkum sun,—almost noon. Ikt sun,—Monday. Mokst sun,—Tuesday. Klone sun,—Wednesday. Lakit sun,—Thursday. Kwinnum sun,—Friday. Taghum sun,—Saturday (formerly Muckamuck sun). Klip sun,—sunset. Elip sitkum sun,—before noon; the forenoon. Kimtah sitkum sun,—after noon; the afternoon.

Sun´-day, or Sante, n. (English,-idem.) Sunday; week. Example: Kloshe mika chako kopa church house kopa Sunday,—please to come to church on Sunday. Sunday sail,—a flag, because formerly on Sunday the flag was raised at the Hudson’s Bay Company’s posts. Ikt Sunday,—a week. Hyas Sunday,—a holiday. (A flag hoisted on a particular occasion is sometimes also called Sunday. The other days of the week are usually counted from this; as, Icht, Mokst, Klone sun kopet Sunday,—one, two, three days after Sunday. Saturday used to be called at the Hudson’s Bay Company’s posts "muckamuck sun,"—food day, as the one on which the rations were issued.)—Gibbs. (Eells gives: "Hyas Sunday,—a holiday, as Fourth of July; Christmas. Mokst Sunday,—a fortnight. Ikt Sunday,—a week; but the word week is rapidly taking its place.")


Tagh´-um, To´-hum, or Tugh´-um, adi. (C) (Chinook,-Takhum; Cowlitz,-Tukhum; Kwantlen,-Tukhum; Selish,-Takkan.) Six. Example: Tahtlum pe taghum,—sixteen. Taghum tahtlum,—sixty. Taghum tukamonuk,—600. (Other spellings: Taghkum; taham; tahkhum; tahom; tahum; tohhum; tuchum; tughhkam.) (Clallam,-T’hung. Upper Chehalis,—Tahum.)—Eells.

Tahl-kie, or Tahnl-kie, adv. (C) (Chinook,-Tanlki.) Yesterday. Example: Yaka chako tahlkie,—he came yesterday. Tahlkie sun,—yesterday. Icht tahlkle,—day before yesterday. "Talki sun,—yesterday. Mox talki sun,—day before yesterday. Tomollah,—tomorrow. Talki moon,—last month. Talki waum illahee,—last summer. Talki cole illahee,—last winter."—Buchanan. (Other spellings: Tahnkie; talke; talki; tanke; tanilkey; tantki; tanlke.)

Taht´-lum, or Taht´-le-lum or Tot´-le-lum, adj. (C) (Chinook,-Tatlelum.) Ten. (The combinations from this are simple.) Example: Moxt, klone, &c., Tahtlum, signifying twenty, thirty, &c.; Tahtlum pe icht, &c., eleven, twelve, &c.; tahtlum-tahtlum, one hundred. (Other spellings: Eattathlelum; tahtelum; tahtilum; tartlum; tatlelam; tatlelom; tattelum; taughlelum; tohtleum; totlum.)

T´al-a-pus, n. (C) (Chinook,-Italipas; Yakima,-Telipa (Pandosy).) The coyote or prairie wolf. A sort of deity or supernatural being, prominent in Indian mythology. A sneak. Eells gives, "Hyas opoots talapus,—same as Talapus. Some give Talapus as Coyote or Prairie Wolf and Hyas opoots talapus as Fox, and some exactly the reverse, custom probably being different according to locality.")

Ta-mah-no-us, n. (C) (Chinook,-Itamanawas.) A sort of guardian or familiar spirit; magic; luck; fortune; anything supernatural; the spirits; a ghost; goblin; idol; witch. "A name applied to anything the Indians cannot understand. A Tah-mah-na-wis man is a doctor, priest, conjurer, and fortune-teller, a dealer in magic and a maker and destroyer of charms for good and all in the same personage."—Phillips. (One’s particular forte is said to be his Tamahnous.")—Gibbs. Example: Makook tamahnous,—to conjure; "make medicine." Masahchie tamahnous,—witchcraft or necromancy. Mr. Anderson restricts the true meaning of the word to conjuring. Halo yaka mitlite tamahnous,—he has no guardian spirit. "‘Klale Tah-mah-na-wis,’ the name of the secret. society of black magic."—Phillips. "There were four kinds of ta-mahn-a-wis, sometimes spelled ta-mahn-o-us, or spirit practices in vogue among the Twanas as there were among the great family of Selish Indians in Washington. The word ta-mahn-a-wis may be and was used in the sense of a noun, an adjective or a verb. As a noun it means any kind of a spirit in the spirit world from the Sahg-ha-lie Tyee, or supreme being, to the klail ta-mahn-a-wis, or devil, literally, black spirit. As an adjective a ta-mahn-a-wis stick, stone, person, etc., is a thing or individual with a ta-mahn-a-wis or spirit either of good or evil in it. As a verb it is used in the sense of invoking the aid of spirits, as ‘mah-mok ta-mahn-a-wis.’ The four kinds of ta-mahn-a-wis of the Indians of the Twana tribe at least are: The ‘ta-mahn-a-wis over the sick,’ the incantations of the medicine men; the ‘red ta-mahn-a-wis,’ the ‘black ta-mahn-a-wis,’ and the ‘spirit land ta-mahn-a-wis.’ The sick ta-mahn-a-wis was only practiced for the healing of the sick. The red, or pill ta-mahn-a-wis, was an assembling together, an invocation, in short, of the spirits for a good season the following summer. It lasted three or four days and consisted of singing, dancing, the beating of tom-toms, drums and the decoration of the face and limbs and body invariably with streaks and spots of red paint. The black, or klail ta-mahn-a-wis, was the free masonry of the Twanas and was without doubt the one great religion of all religious practices among them. It was a secret society to a very large extent, and none but the initiated were ever permitted to have anything to do with it. Masks made in rude imitation of the wolf head were used, and these were called shway-at-sho-sin. The practice of the spirit land ta-mahn-a-wis was associated with or founded on a very pretty myth believed in by the old Twanas to the effect that a year or two perhaps before an Indian died he or she lost his or her spirit. Spirits from other places, always from below, would visit the Indian and, quite unaware to the person, would take and carry off the spirit and sail with it to their abiding place, there to hold it in captivity unless released by spirits from this life. The theory of the medicine ta-mahn-a-wis is that when a person is sick some evil spirit has taken possession of the body, sometimes more than one evil spirit, and of different kinds. It was always the duty of the ta-mahn-a-wis doctors to find out what kind of a spirit had entered the body, and then by incantation and ceremony to drive it out."—The Siwash, "The Twana or Skokomish tribe," pp. 32-40. Ta-mahn-a-wis rattles, made out of deer hoofs, bear and beaver teeth, etc. (Other ways of spelling: Tamahnawas; tamahnawis, tamahnowus, tamanawas; tamanoaz; tamanous, tomahnawos, tomanawos.)

Ta-mo´-litsh, or, Ta-mow´-litsh, n. (C) (Chinook,-Tamulitsh (Anderson); Yakama,-Tamolitsh (Pandosy).) A tub; barrel; bucket; cask; keg. Example: Chuck mitlite kopa tamolitsh,—water is in the barrel. Icht tamolitsh,—a bushel measure. (Other ways of spelling: Tamoolidge, tamolich, tamolich, tamolitch, tamoluck, tamoolitch, tamulidge.)

Tanse, v., n. (English,-Dance.) To dance. Example: Hiyu tanse alta,—there is much dancing now.

Te-ah´wit, n. (C) (Chinook,-Tiawi; Clatsop,-Klaawit.) The leg; the foot. (Differentiate by gesture.) Example: Klatawa teahwit,—to go on foot; to walk; Klook teawit,—lame. (Other ways of spelling: Teeahnute, tearwit, teawhit, teiawit, teouit.)

Ta-toos´h, To-toos´h, n. (Chippeway,-Totosh (Schoolcraft).) "Tatoosh from Cree or Otcipwe. The cognate words are: Cree (Lacombe) totosim, ‘mammelle, pis.’ Otcipwe (Baraga) totosh,—breast, dug, udder; Algonkin (Cuoq), totoc, ‘mammelle.’"—Chamberlain. The breasts of a female; milk; bosom; breast; teat; udder. Example: Kloshe tatoosh,—cream. Tatoosh lakles,—butter. Tatoosh gleese,—butter. Eells says the word milk is taking its place. (Tatoosh Light House, Tatoosh Island and Totoosh, near Cape Flattery, Clallam County, Wash.)

NOTE: The words of a Algonkian origin which are to be found in the vocabulary of Chinook, as given by the authorities, are consequently: Kinnikinnik, [le]pishemo, mitass, siskiyou, totoosh, wapatoo. Regarding the etymology of these loan-words, the following may be said: Kinni-kinnik. Derived directly or indirectly from Otcipwe. The cognates are Otcipwe (Baraga). Kiniginige, ‘I am mixing together something of diffirent kinds.’ (Cuoq) kinikinige, ‘meler ensemble des choses de nature differente.’ The radical is seen in Algonkin (Cuoq) kinika, ‘pele-mele’—Cree, Kiyekaw. (See supplemental vocabulary.) Lepishimo. This word evidently consists of the French article le and a radical [a] pishemo. This latter apishamon, ‘anything to lie on; a bed’ corresponds to the Otcipwe (Baraga) apishemo, ‘I am lying on something.’ Compare the Western Americanism apishamore which Bartlett (Dict. of Americanism, 1877) thus defines: "Apishamore (Chippeway, apishamon). Anything to lie down on: a bed. A saddle-blanket made of buffalo-calf skins, much used on the prairies." Mitass. Directly or indirectly (through French-Canadian) from Otcipwe or Cree. The cognate words are: Oteipwe (Baraga) midass; Algonkin (Cuoq), mitas; Cree (Lacombe) mitas. The word exists in Canadian-French in the form of mitasse. Dr. Franz Boas kindly informs me that "legging" in Chinook and Clatsop is imetas. (See supplemental vocabulary.) Siskiyou. Though this word is assigned a Cree origin by Mr. Gibbs, its etymology is very uncertain. Blackfoot sakhsiu, "short" and Cree kiskikkuttew, "he cuts in two" offer themselves for comparison, but with no certainty."—Chamberlain. Tshis-ki-yu, sky, is given by Tolmie and Dawson in "Comparative Vocabularies of the Indian Tribes of British Columbia,"—53 B. (64, sky) Aht. (Kaiookwaht)—Shaw. Wappatoo, under proper order in main alphabet, (q. v.). "Papoose. Another word may be added to this list, viz., papus (papoose)—child. This word is used by the speakers of Chinook in Eastern British Columbia. The Algonkin origin of the word has been disputed by some, but there is every reason to believe that it is connected with the root seen in the Massachusetts papeissiosu (Eliot)—‘he is very small,’ peisses (Eliot) ‘child’ pe-u (Eliot) ‘it is small.’ From this root there seems little doubt that the word papoos or papoose found in Roger Williams, and in Wood ("New England Prospect") has been derived, as Dr. Trumbull has pointed out. These words were all heard by the writer in Western British Columbia in the summer of 1891. Siskiyou was not heard and is probably obsolescent."—Alexander Francis Chamberlain, "Words of Algonkian origin (in the Chinook Jargon)," in Science, Vol. 18, pp. 260-261, 1891.

Ten´-as, or Tan´as, n., adj. (N) (Nootka,-Tanas; Tokwaht,-Tenes.) Small; few; little; a child; the young of any anlmal. Petty; slight; pappoose; baby; a mite. Example: Tenas snow chako,—little snow has come. Chako tenas,—to decrease; diminish; lessen; become less. Hyas tenas,—very small. Mamook tenas,—to decrease; diminish; lessen. Tenas ahnkuttie,—lately; recently. Tenas hiyu,—a few; some; several. Tenas hiyu times,—sometimes. Tenas laly,—an interval; a short time. Tenas mahsh,—to move. Tenas polaklie,—evening; twilight; sunset; dusk; eve. Tenas yaka tenas,—a grand child. Mokst nika tenas,—I have two children. Tenas yaka tenas man,—a grandson. (Jewitt gives Tanassis for a child in Nootka.) Chikchik kopa tenas,—a wagon for a child: a baby carriage. (Other ways of spelling: Tanarse, tanas, tanass, tanaz, tunas, tunass.)

Thousand, adj. (English,-idem.) (Thousand is either represented by the words tahtlum tukamonuk,—ten hundred—or by the word thousand,—Eells.) Example: Hiyu tillikums mitlite, klonas kunjih thousand,—many people are here, perhaps many thousand.

Tik-egh, or Tiky, v. (C) (Chinook,-tikekh.) To want; wish; love; like; choose; pick. "To want, to desire, in all shades of meaning and intensity from simple desire or want to amorous and even lustful desire; also, therefore, to love. Also, what one should or ought to want to do, as mika ticky muckamuck mika lametsin,—you must take your medicine. Mika halo ticky smoke,—you must not smoke. Mika halo ticky wawa kahkwa kopa nika,—you must not speak like that to me."—Buchanan. "The future, in the sense of ‘about to,’ ‘ready to,’ is sometimes expressed by tikegh, which means properly to wish or desire. Nika papa tikegh mimaloose,—my father is near dying, or about to die."—Hale. Example: Okoke sun nika tikegh wawa,—this day I will speak. Hyas tikegh,—to long for. Ikta mika tikegh?—what do you want? Yaka tikegh dolla,—he wants money. Nika tikegh nika klootchman,—I love my wife. Delate halo tikegh,—to loathe. Elip tikegh,—to prefer; choose; rather. Halo tikegh,—averse; dislike; unwilling. Tikegh kumtuks,—to enquire; to wish to know. (Other spellings: Takeh; teke; takeigh; tickey; tikeh; tiki; tikke; tikky; t’keh; treh; tukegh.)

Til´-i-kum, or tilakum, n. (C) (Chinook,-tilikhum.) People; relations; relatives; associate; family; folks; friends; kin; kindred; band; tribe; fellow nation; population; person. (Applied generally, it means those who are not chiefs. It is also used to signify a tribe or band.) Example: Cultus tilikum,—common or insignificant persons. Huloima tilikum,—strangers. Nika tilikum,—my relations. Yaka klatawa kopa yaka tillikums,—he has gone to his people. Ahnkuttie tilikums,—ancestors; forefathers. Eells gives "Nika tilikums,—my friends; my relations; so when preceded by the other pronouns, as mika, mesika, nesika, klaska, yaka, it has reference to friends or relations. Hiyu tilikums,—a crowd; a throng. (Other spellings: Telikom; tekum; tilacum; tilecum tilicum; tellikum; tillikums (pl.); tillicum; tillochcum.)

Til´-i-kum-ma-ma, n. (C) (Chinook,-Tlkamama.) A father. (The word is not in use in Jargon.—Hale.)

Till, or Tull, adj., n. (English,-Tire.) Tired; heavy; weight; a weight; a pound; fatigue. Example: Kansih till okook,—how much does that weigh? Mamook till,—to weigh. Wake till,—light (not heavy). Mamook till tumtum,—to trouble. Wake siah mimoluse kopa till,—exhausted. Nika hyas till,—I am very tired. Chako till,—to become tired; fagged.

Tin´-tin, n. (By onoma.) A bell; an hour; a musical instrument. "When applied to a clock it means when the bell rings, that is on the hour—therefore it means hour or o’clock"—Buchanan. Example: Mamook tintin,—to ring a bell. Kunjih tintin alta?—what time is it now? (Among the Indians round the Hudson Bay Company’s posts, the hours were thus known; as, Mokst tintin kopet sitkum sun, two hours, i. e., two bells after noon.) "Ikt tintin, one hour or one o’clock. The same word also refers to a church bell and any kind of bell, as well as the sound produced by it."—Buchanan. Elip tahkum tintin,—before six o'clock. Kimtah tahkum tintin,—after six o’clock. Tahkum tintin,—six o’clock; six hours. Wake siah tahkum tintin,—almost six o’clock; not far away from six o’clock.

T’kope, adj. (Chinook,-idem.) White; light-colored. Example: Okoke pishpish yaka t’kope,—that cat is white. T’kope tilikums,—white people. (Other spellings: Tecope; teecoop; tekop; tekope; t’koop; la coope.)

Tlehl. (See Klale.)

Tl’kope, v. (Chinook,-idem.) To cut; hew; chop. Example: Mamook tl’hop,—to cut; mow. Tl’kop ooakut,—to supplant (to cut one’s road). (W. W.—but is being superseded rapidly by the word cut.—Eells.)

Toh, or Tooh (By onoma.) Mamook toh,—to spit. (A manufactured word.)

T´oke-tie, adj. (Kalapuya) Pretty. (Not in common use.)

To´-lo, v. (Kalapuya) To earn; to win at a game; to gain; control; convince; manage; defeat; overcome; overthrow; prevail; profit; prosper; subdue; subject; succeed; triumph. Example: Kansih dolla nika tolo spose mamook?—How many dollars will I earn if I work? Yaka tolo mokst dollar,—he earned two dollars. Nika tolo,—I succeeded. Nika tolo yaka,—I prevailed over him. Wawa pe tolo,—to persuade.

To´-luks, n. (Clallam,-toyuk.) The mussel. (Used on Puget Sound only.)

To-mol-la, adv. (English,-to-morrow.) To-morrow. Ikt tomolla, or kopet tomolla,—day after to-morrow.

To-wa´gh, adj. (C) (Chinook,-towakh.) Bright; shining; light.

Tsee, adj. (Chinook,-idem.) Sweet.

Tsee´pie, v., adj. (Kalapuya) To miss a mark; to mistake one's road; to make a blunder in speaking; to err or blunder; deceive; false; illusive; deceitful Example: Okoke tseepie mamook,—that is a deceitful deed. Tseepie ooakut,—to take a wrong road. Mamook tseepie,—to delude; dissemble; fool; deceive; mistake (not quite so strong as Pelton or Kliminawhit.—Eells.) Tseepie lalang,—a slip of the tongue. Tseepie mamook,—a trick. Tseepie wawa,—to mispronounce.

Tshi´-ke, adv. (Quaere u. d.) Directly; soon. (Not jargon—Hale.)

Tsi-at-ko, n. (B) (Chihalis, Nisqually, etc.,-idem; Clatsop,-Echiatku.) "A nocturnal demon, much feared by the Indians. The Skagits give this name to the ‘Couteaux,’ a tribe of Indians on Frazer River, of whom they stand in like awe.—Gibbs."

Tsik´-tsik, or Tchik tchik, n. (By onoma.) (See Chik-chik.) A wagon; a cart; a wheel. Example: Tsiktsik wayhut,—a wagon-road.

Tsugh, n., v. (Chinook,-idem.) A crack or split, Mamook tsugh,—to split. Chako tsugh,—to become split or cracked, as by the heat of the sun. Mamook tsugh illahie is by some used instead of klugh, for to plough.

Tuk-a-mo´-nuk, or Tak-a-mo´-nak, adj. (C) (Chinook,-Itakamonak.) A hundred. It is, like ten, combined with the digits; as, icht, moxt, klone takamonak,—one hundred, two hundred, three hundred, &c. Hyas tukamonuk, or tahtlum tukamonak,—a thousand. (Other spellings: Ethacamunack; tacomonak; takamonuk; takamunak.).

Tum´-tum, n., v. (By onoma., from the pulsations of the heart. (Anderson).) The heart; the, will; opinion; intellect; intention; estimate; memory; mind; opinion; plan; purpose; reason; soul; spirit; surmise; thought; will. (Tumtum, as a verb—To think, to will, to believe, to know. As a noun—Thought, will, belief, mind, opinion, knowledge, heart.)—Buchanan. Example: Mahsh tumtum,—to give orders (Gb). Mamook tumtum,—to make up one's mind; decide; design; muse; account; contemplate; think; plan. Mamook kloshe tumtum,—to make friends or peace. Sick tumtum,—grief; jealousy. Moxt tumtum nika,—I am undecided, i. e., I have two wills. Q. Kah nesika klatawa?—where shall we go? A. Mika tumtum,—wherever you please; as you will. Ikta mika tumtum?—what do you think? Halo tumtum,—without a will of one’s own, as a child. The heart seems to be generally regarded as the seat of the mind or will. Iskum kopa tumtum,—to believe. Klap tumtum,—to decide; recollect; remember. Mahsh tumtum,—to forget (Eells). Mamook tumtum elip,—to anticipate. Mitlite kloshe tumtum kopa,—to admire. Skookum tumtum,—bold; boldness; brave; capable; audacious; courage; determined; earnest. Kahkwa nika tumtum,—so I think. Blind kopa tumtum,—ignorant. Chako kloshe tumtum,—to be delighted or reconciled. Chako sick tumtum,—to repent; repine; become sorry or sad. Delate hyas sick tumtum,—agony. Heehee tumtum,—jolly. Halo iskum kopa tumtum,—to disbelieve; unbelief. Yutl tumtum,—glad spirits; happy spirits; proud spirits; rejoice, etc.; glad heart; happy heart, etc. (Tumtum,—Heart, mind, will, opinion, belief, spirit—the animal spirits, not supernatural ones—mood, etc. Marsh tumtum,—to cast out of mind,—i. e., to forget. Mamook kloshe tumtum,—to make or to cause good feeling.)—Buchanan. Halo klap tumtum,—to be puzzled; undecided. Halo proud tumtum,—lowly; humble. Halo sick tumtum kopa yaka mesachie,—impenitent. Halo skookum tumtum,—resolute; cowardly; not brave. Halo tumtum,—dull; thoughtless. Halo tumtum kahkwa,—to disagree; disbelieve. Hyas tumtum,—pompous. Kloshe kopa nika tumtum,—beloved. Mamook tumtum kopa book or papah,—to study. Mitlite kloshe tumtum,—to be contented; delighted; to enjoy. Mitlite kopa tumtum,—to remember; recollect. Nika tumtum halo yaka chako kahkwa,—unexpected; chance; an accident. Wake kopet tumtum,—to remember. Weght mamook tumtum,—to reconsider.

Tum-wa´-ta, n. (Tum,-by onoma.; English,-water.) A waterfall, cascade or cataract. (Lewis and Clarke give Timm as used by the Indians above The Dalles of the Columbia in directing them to the falls.) Under the spelling of Tumwater it is the name of a place in Thurston County, Wash.

Tup´-shin or Tip´-sin, v. (S) (Chihalis,-Tupshin.) A Needle. Mamook tipsin,—to sew; to mend; to patch.

Tup-so, or Tip´-so, n. (C) (Chinook,—Tepso.) A leaf; grass; leaves; fringe; feathers; fur; hair. Often but incorrectly employed for Yakso,—hair. Example: Tipso illahie,—prairie. Dely tipso,—hay. Klosh tupso,—flowers; blossoms; pansy; violet; rose. Tupso kopa latet,—hair. Tupso kopa seahost,—bread.

Ty´-ee, n., adj. (N) (Nootka,-Taiyi; Tyee (Jewitt).) A chief; gentleman; officer; superior; boss; foreman; manager; Indian agent; king; emperor; president. (Anything of superior order.) Example: Saghalie tyee,—the Deity. Tyee salmon,—the spring salmon. (Tyon is given by some of the northwestern voyagers as the Eskimo appellation for chief.) Kahkwa tyee,—kingly; aristocratic. Tyee kopa Washington,—the President of the United States. (Other spellings: Tai; taii; tie; tye; tyeyea; tyhee.) Tyee court,—supreme court. Tyee klootchman,—empress; queen; matron of an Indian school; a woman of authority. Tyee kopa newspaper,—an editor. Tyee kopa town,—a mayor. Tyee salmon,—spring salmon.

Tzum, or T’ss-zum, or Tsum, n., adj. (Chinook,-idem.) Mixed colors; spots or stripes; a mark or figure; writing; paint; painted; picture. Example: Yaka tzum kopa yaka stick "S,"—his brand on his logs is "S." Klale chuck kopa mamook tzum,—ink. Mamook tzum,—to write; print; stamp; stain; paint; dye; mark; record; copy; subscribe; indite; endorse; engrave. Tzum illahie,—blazed or surveyed land. Tzum seahost,—photograph; profile; postage stamps. Tzum stick,—a lead pencil; a pen. Tzum pish,—a spotted fish, the trout. "When the letter T’ is followed by the apostrophe, as above. the sound of the T is ‘tiss’ as nearly as it can be written, thus making a syllable of itself, as tiss-so-lo, for t’solo."—Phillips.


Wagh, v. (C) (Chinook,-wakh.) To pour; to spill; to vomit.

Wake, adv. (N) (Nootka,-wik; Tokwaht,-wek.) No; not; none; the negative. See Halo. Example: Wake nika kumtuks,—I do not understand. Wake delate kopa nanitch,—indistinct; indistinguishable. Wake klaksta,—none; nobody. Wake hiyu,—few; insufficient; lacking; rare; scarce; seldom; scant; scanty; deficient. Wake kloshe,—mean, unkind; improper; inconvenient; untrustworthy; nasty; naughty; wrong. Wake siah,—not far; near; almost adjoining. Wake kloshe kopa mahkook,—unsalable. Wake siah kopa,—about; around; by. Wake siah yahwa,—thereabouts. Wake skookum,—feeble; flimsy; frail; languid; impotent; infirm; tender; delicate; unable; wavering; weak. Wake skookum kopa,—impossible; unable; inability. Wake skookum tumtum,—irresolute. Wake wawa,—dumb; mum; mute. Note.—"Many of the Jargon words, though entirely different, yet sound so much alike when quickly spoken, that a stranger is apt to get deceived; and I have known persons who did not well understand the Jargon get angry with an Indian, thinking he had said something entirely different from what he actually did. The words wake, no, and wicht, directly or after, sound as pronounced, very similar. Chako, hiac, chako,—Come quick! come, said a settler one day to an Indian who was very busy. Wicht nika chako,—I will come directly, said the Indian. But the white man understood him to say, Wake nika chako,—I will not come, consequently got angry. You don’t understand Indian talk; I did not say I would not come, said the Indian. If he had said Narwitika, yes, the white man would have understood."—Judge Swan. (Wicht means, again, also, more, the word is also spelled weght, wagt, weht, weh’t, weltch, weqt, and wought.)—Shaw.

Wap´-pa-too, or Wap´-a-to, n. (Quare u. d.) The root of the Sagitaria sagittifolia, which forms an article of food. The potato. Chamberlain says, "From Cree or Otcipwe. The cognate words are: Cree (Lacombe) wapatow, ‘champignon blanc’; Otcipwe (Baraga), wabado, ‘rhubarb,’ Algonkin (Cuoq) wabato, ‘rhubarbe du Canada.’ It is in all probability a derivative from the root wap—(wab), ‘white.’" "The word is neither Chinook nor Chihalis, but is everywhere in common use."—Gibbs. Eells says: "Since the introduction of the potato the latter has been called wapato, and the former siwash wapato." (Other spellings: Wapatoe; wahpitto; wapetu; wappato; wappatoe; wappatoo.)

Wash, v. (English,-idem.) Example: Mamook wash,—to wash. Iskum wash,—to be baptized.

Washington, n. (E) Congress; the City of Washington; the Indian Department at Washington. Example: Washington potlatch law kopa nesika,—may mean that congress has made a law for us, or that the Indian Department has done so.

Waum, adj. (E) Warm. Example: Okoke sun yaka waum,—today is warm. Waum illahee,—summer. Hyas waum,—hot. Waum sick, cole sick,—fever and ague.

Wawa, or wau-wau, v. n. (N) (Nootka, Nittinat,-wawe.—Gibbs. Chinook,-awawa.—Boas.) To talk; speak; call; ask; tell; answer; enquire; declare; salue; announce; talk or conversation; converse; apply; articulate; allege; assert; blab; gab; chatter; communicate; argue; gossip; demand; discuss; express; exclaim; hint; interrogate; lecture; mention; narrate; proclaim; profess; propose; question; relate; remark; report; request; say; solicit; message; an anecdote; exclamation; oration; legend, question; tale; sermon; speech; voice; harangue; inquire; jabber; mutter; supplicate; declamation; mandate; narrative; precept. Example: ikta mika wawa?—what did you say? Delate wawa,—to promise; aver; a fact; truth. Hiyu kloshe wawa,—cheer. Hiyu wawa,—clamor; argument; much talk; to argue; acclaim. Kilapie wawa,—to answer; reply. Kloshe wawa,—a proverb; good talk. Kumtuks wawa,—to be eloquent. Mahsh wawa,—to order; to give orders; command. (Also to disobey, i. e., to throw away the talk as well as to throw the talk at a person.—Eells.) Potlatch wawa,—to speak; make a speech. Potlatch skookum wawa,—to beg; beseech; boast; chide; demand; exhort; plead; roar; shriek; rebuke; reprove; implore, exclaim; scold. Cultus wawa,—idle talk; stuff; nonsense. Hyas wauwau,—to shout; boast; talk loud; loud talk. Wawa halo,—to deny; decline; object; refuse. Wawa kliminawhit,—to lie; tell a falsehood. Wawa kloshe,—to bless; speak well; recommend. Wawa kloshe chako,—to invite; call. Wawa kloshe wawa,—to eulogize; bless. Wawa kopa,—to accost. Wawa kopa Saghalie Tyee,—to pray; worship; invoke; prayer. Wawa kopet,—be still. Wawa nawitka,—to acknowledge; allow; assent; consent; permit.

Wayhut, Hwehkut, or Weehut,—see Ooakut.

Week, n. (E) A week. "It is steadily taking the place of Sunday for week, though I seldom heard it eighteen years ago."—Eells.

Weght, adv. (C) (Chinook,-idem.) Again; also; more. Ex.: Pe nika weght,—and I too. Pahtlatsh weght,—give me some more. Tenas weght,—a little more yet. Weght nika klatawa,—again I will go. Weght chako,—to reassemble. Weght klatawa boat (or ship),—to reembark. Weght klatawa saghalie,—to remount. Weght mamook tumtum,—to reconsider.

Win´-a-pie, adv. (N) (Nootka; Nittinat,-Wilapi.) By-and-bye; presently; wait. Of local use; the Chinook "alki" being more common.

Wind, or Win, n. (English,-idem.) Wind; breath; air; atmosphere. (The winds are often known by the country from which they blow; as, for instance, on the Columbia, an easterly is a Walla-walla wind; at the mouth of the river, a southerly is a Tilamooks wind, &c.) See Chinook wind. Breath. Example: Halo wind,—out of breath; dead. Wind yaka skookum alta,—the wind is very strong now. Mahsh konoway yaka wind,—to die; dead. Mitlite wind,—to be alive; to have breath. Wake siah mahsh yaka wind,—almost dead. Wind chako,—to blow. Wind chako halo,—to stop blowing.


Yah´-ka, Ya´-ka, or Yok´-ka, pron. (C) (Chinook,-Yaka.) He; his; him; she; it; hers; its; him; her. (Anything pertaining to the third person, singular number.) The word yaka is often used somewhat tautologically, as,—instead of saying,—Okoke kiutan t’kope,—the horse (is) white, the expression would be,—Okoke kiutan yaka t´kope,—the horse, it (is) white. This use of yaka is very common.—Eells. Example: Yaka klatawa,—he has gone. Nanitch yaka,—see him. Okoke yaka kuitan,—that is his horse. Kopa yaka,—his; hers; its. Yaka kumtuks muckamuk whiskey,—a drunkard. Yaka self,—himself; herself; itself. Yakas,—his; hers; its.

Yah´-wa, adv. (C) (Chinook,-Yawakh.) There; thither;. thence; beyond; in that place; that side; that way; yonder. Example: Yahwa yaka mitlite,—there he is. Ikt yahwa, ikt yahwa,—apart. Wake siah yahwa,—thereabouts.

Yak´-so, n. (Chinook,-idem.) (See tupso.) The hair of the head; hair generally. Example: Yaka yakso chako halo, his hair is all gone. (See tupso.) (Tupso is used more than yakso.—Eells.) (Other spellings: Iakso, yaksoot.)

Ya-kwah´-tin, or Kwah´-tin, n. (Chinook & Clatsop,-Yakwatin.) The belly; the entrails; stomach; bosom. Example: Yaka sick kopa yaka yakwahtin,—he has the stomach ache. Keekwulee yakwatin,—entrails.

Yaub. (See Lejaub.)

Yi´-em, v., n. (S) (Chihalis,-Yaiem.) A story; tale; anecdote; to relate; to tell a story; to confess to a priest; a story or tale; to tattle; to preach.

Youtl, or Yutl, adj. (Quaere Chihalis,-Eyutlh; Nisqually,-Juil.) Glad; pleased; proud; (of a horse),—spirited. Example: Hyas youtl yakka tumtum,—his heart is very glad; he is much puffed up. "Ulthl means proud, and ulticut long, but they are readily confounded with each other."—Judge Swan.

Youtl´-kut, adj., n. (C) (Chinook,-Yutlkut.) Long (in dimension); length. Example: Okoke stick hyas youtlkut. Note:—"A friend of mine, who was about leaving the Bay, wished to tell some Indians who were working for him that if, on his return, he found they had behaved well, he should feel very proud of them and glad, used the following: Ulticut nika tumtum, or, my heart is long, instead of ulthl nika tumtum,—or, my heart is proud. ‘He must have a funny heart,’ said the Indian who related it to me. ‘He says his heart is long; perhaps it is like a mouse's tail.’"—Judge Swan.

Yout-skut, or Yutes´-kut, adj. (C) (Chinook,-Yutskuta.) Short (in dimension).

Yuk´-wa, or Yah´-kwa, adv. (C) (Chinook,-Yakwa.) Here; hither; this side of; this way. Example: Yakwa kopa okook house,—this side of that house. Chako yukwa,—come here.

Note. The letters (C), (E), (F), (N) and (S) refer to the derivation of words, and, signify Chinook, English, French, Nootka, and Salish. Words marked (J) are considered to be the peculiar property of the Jargon, as having been formed either in imitation of sounds or by some casual invention. Words marked (Quaere u. d.) are of doubtful or undetermined origin. The cognates follow in parenthesis, as, (C) (Chinook,-ankutti). A pronouncing vocabulary immediately follows the list of useful words. A supplemental vocabulary of archaic or unusual words comes next. Then follows the English-Chinook part. (See Explanatory Notes.)


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